After fertilization, the eggs of flat headed catfish, white crappie and bluegills. Once attached to the fish, the glochidia finish larval development. After larval development is complete, the young washboards release from the gills of the fish and land on the river bottom to mature into adults. Throughout their adult life, the mussels continue to grow. ("Megalonaias nervosa", 2011; Haag, 2012; "Megalonaias nervosa", 2014)move to the female's gills and reside there until the eggs hatch into larvae commonly known as glochidia. As a glochidia, the leaves the female's gills and attaches to the gills of fish. The three most common fish that attaches to are the
After the female's eggs are fertilized, the female washboard keeps the eggs in her gills for development. The size of washboard larvae is extremely small, ranging from 50 µm to 450 µm. After finishing development, the female washboard begins to attract fish to finish the embryo development process. The embryos of washboards have a parasitic relationship with fish. A grouping of parasitic washboard larvae is known as a glochidia. A female attracts fish using a her mantle as a lure. Once the fish moves close enough while investigating the mantle bait, the female releases her glochidia for the larvae to attach to the fish's gills. The larvae finish development in the gills of fish before turning into an adult. Larger female washboards typically have higher fecundity rates than smaller female washboards. ("Megalonaias nervosa", 2011; Cummings and Graf, 2009; Haag, 2012; "Megalonaias nervosa", 2014)
Males provide no parental care, but females do invest a significant amount of energy. Female carry the fertilized eggs for a short while until they hatch into glochidia. The female uses her mantle as a lure to attract a host fish, and when the fish draws near enough, the female washboard releases the glochidia, which are parasitic and attach to the host fish. The glochidia continue their development on the fish, independent of the female parent. (Cummings and Graf, 2009)
Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to attach themselves to , causing the washboard to suffocate and die. Washboards also serve as prey to a variety of vertebrates, such as raccoons and muskrats. This mussel helps with water clarity in numerous river systems during its adult life, by filtering particles out of the water. ("Megalonaias nervosa", 2011; Clayton, 2012; Haag, 2012)
There are no known adverse effects of ("Megalonaias nervosa", 2014)on humans.
Dreissena polymorpha, commonly known as the zebra mussel, attaches to the shell of washboards, killing them by suffocation. The washboard is also harvested for the pearl industry, contributing to its population decrease.is currently a threatened species in numerous states around the U.S. Destruction of habitat is one of the largest factors to the decrease in population size in these states. Pollutants, damming of streams, increased siltation and blockage of host fish migration contributes to this problem. Additionally,
Kathryn Brekken (author), Minnesota State University Mankato, Robert Sorensen (editor), Minnesota State University, Mankato, Angela Miner (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. see also oceanic vent.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
particles of organic material from dead and decomposing organisms. Detritus is the result of the activity of decomposers (organisms that decompose organic material).
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
a method of feeding where small food particles are filtered from the surrounding water by various mechanisms. Used mainly by aquatic invertebrates, especially plankton, but also by baleen whales.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
Animals with indeterminate growth continue to grow throughout their lives.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
an animal that mainly eats plankton
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resource. 2014. "http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/rsg/profile.html?action=elementDetail&selectedElement=IMBIV29020." (On-line). Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Accessed March 20, 2014 at
Clayton, J. 2012. "Mussel Restoration in West Virginia Streams" (On-line). Accessed April 23, 2014 at http://www.wvdnr.gov/Wildlife/Magazine/Archive/13Spring/Mussel_Restoration.pdf.
Cummings, K., J. Cordeiro. 2011. "http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/173066/0." (On-line). The IUCN List of Threatened Species. Accessed March 20, 2014 at
Cummings, K., D. Graf. 2009. Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. Italy: Academic Press.
Haag, W. 2012. North American Freshwater Mussels. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Haggerty, T., J. Garner, R. Rogers. 2005. Reproductive phenology in Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Wheeler Reservoir, Tennessee River, Alabama, USA. Hydrobiologia, 539: 131-136. Accessed March 20, 2014 at http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&sid=1e4213b8-b17f-4a5c-a2bc-a4eb50208d45%40sessionmgr4005&hid=4204&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=17067946.(
Klocek, , Bland, Barghusen. 2008. "Washboard" (On-line pdf). Accessed March 20, 2014 at http://fm1.fieldmuseum.org/keystonature/mussels/washboard.pdf.
Woody, C., L. Holland-Bartels. 1993. Reproductive characteristics of a population of the washboard mussel Journal of freshwater ecology. La Crosse, WI, 8/1: 57-66. Accessed March 20, 2014 at http://ezproxy.mnsu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/16737659?accountid=12259.(Rafinesque 1820) in the upper Mississippi River.