Great Plains skinks are found in wide and diverse habitats including mixed woodland, prairies, forests, mountain slopes, canyons, open hillsides and deserts. In the southwest, they are confined to rugged rocky terrain. Areas that have short, thick grass or other ground vegetation, and flat rocks for shelter are optimal habitats for Great Plains skinks and they are found in dense low vegetation near rock outcroppings, or beneath trash and rocks. If rocks or other surface cover are absent they will burrow in the open or use small mammal burrows for shelter (Fitch, 1955; Watkins and Hinesley, 1970)
Great Plains skinks are larger than other species of skinks with a relatively thick torso and neck. The neck is muscular and equals the body in diameter. They have long, curved claws and their toes and feet are covered in scales. Great Plains skinks do not have the traditional striped pattern of most skinks, and their scale patterns have changed to an oblique pattern rather than the normal parallel pattern. The coloring is a mottled light grey, dark brown, and black. Males also have a patch of orange on either side of their head. (Evans, 1959; Fitch, 1955; Hall and Fitch, 1971; Hall, 1972; Smith, 1946; Watkins and Hinesley, 1970)
Mating pairs may be found under rocks during breeding season, but they are a polygynandrous species. Sexual activity is limited to a period of a few weeks in late spring and the mating pattern followed is similar to other species of Eumeces. The male recognizes the female due to her scent and lack of orange markings on the head. The male chases the female, nips at her tail, and catches her by her neck skin. The male loops underneath the female to begin copulating. Copulation lasts around 6 minutes. (Fitch, 1955)
Mating occurs in late April and early May, eggs are laid in early June and hatch in about 40 days. Great Plains skinks produce large clutches of 7 to 24 eggs. Only 8% of lizard species have larger average broods than this Great Plains skinks. Large clutches compensate for the long amount of time required to incubate the eggs and because they may not reproduce every year. The mother guards the eggs for a 1 to 2 month incubation period. No more than 1 clutch per year is possible and some females do not breed every year. Older females are more productive than young ones (as in many other species of lizard). Environmental factors may also influence clutch size. If the weather is dry females will change nesting sites. If eggs are already laid, she will dig up the soil around them to increase humidity. Females are known to release water from the bladder to moisten the nest cavity if necessary. When the eggs hatch, the mother smells around the eggs to locate eggs that are not yet hatched. She passes her head over babies left to right and rouses the recently hatched skinks. She grooms babies for ten days after birth by licking their cloacal vent around 5 times for about half a second. Hatching occurs in the late half of the summer and mortality of young is high. By the time the skinks reach one full year they are nearing adult size. (Evans, 1959; Fitch, 1955; Hall and Fitch, 1971; Evans, 1959; Fitch, 1955; Hall and Fitch, 1971)
The mother spends the entire summer sheltering and guarding her eggs before they hatch. Following birth, the mother cares for the young and is extremely tolerant of them. Males give no care to young. (Evans, 1959)
Great Plains skinks can live up to 8 years in the wild. The population has a sharp decrease in frequency of skinks that survive from age 1 to 2 and there are large drops in the frequency of older skinks that levels off around year 5. (Hall and Fitch, 1971)
Great Plains skinks are never found far from their rocky homes. This is presumably due to the temperature extremes in their environments. In field research it has been found that activity level drastically drops off when the temperature rises. This species of skink does not tolerate cold temperatures either. Beginning in October Great Plains skinks hibernate until March of the next year. (Fitch, 1955; Fitch, 1955; Watkins and Hinesley, 1970)
Great Plains skinks stay close to their burrows and have a small hunting range. They may spend many days under the same rock or in their burrow. When a skink does emerge, it only makes short trips and returns to its home. Burrows are temporary and the skink may change its burrow location every few days or weeks, depending on environmental conditions. When the skink does change the site of its burrow it is often only a few meters away from the original burrow. (Fitch, 1955; Hall and Fitch, 1971; Fitch, 1955; Hall and Fitch, 1971)
Great Plains skinks use visual cues and their sense of smell to discriminate the sex of other skinks at a distance. After contact is made, communication is through touch and smell. (Evans, 1959)
In the wild, Great Plains skinks consume only invertebrates. Their diet consists of insects, arachnids, arthropods, and gastropods. There have rarely been remains of other skinks in the stomachs of Great Plains skinks, but it is believed that this is mostly due to accidents. Most frequently, the remains of gryllid crickets, short-horned grasshoppers, scarabaeid beetles, lepidopteran larvae, and carabid beetles are found in their stomachs. Most prey is found in the sheltered areas near the burrow and many prey species can be found underground. They rely on their sense of smell to find prey and to avoid venomous species. Invertebrate prey generally not consumed include earthworms, centipedes, ants, and cockroaches. Their diet changes seasonally with available arthropod prey. (Fitch, 1955; Hall and Fitch, 1971; Hall, 1972)
Great Plains skinks are preyed on by venomous snakes, birds of prey, and small mammals. Snakes find and trap the skinks in their burrows. Small, fossorial mammals also find skink burrows and prey on them. Most adult Great Plains skinks have scars from predators but they will aggressively defend themselves. They use hard wriggling bites that cause lacerations and defecation as a defense mechanism. When a Great Plains skink bites, it uses its powerful jaws to grab a small piece of skin. It will then thrash around until it leaves a painful laceration. Great Plains skinks are also relatively cryptically colored in their native environment. (Hall, 1972; Hall, 1972)
Great Plains skinks prey on insects and arachnids that could be considered pests to humans. (Hall, 1972)
Great Plains skinks carry a large number of chiggers, which can be transmitted to humans. (Hall, 1972)
Distribution of Great Plains skinks is large but has areas of isolated colonies. These small populations are isolated because they are surrounded by inhospitable habitats with little cover and lower daily temperatures than are necessary for survival of the species. ("IUCN Red List of Threatened Species", 2008; Belfit and Belfit, 1985; Watkins and Hinesley, 1970)
Rachel Skaggs (author), Centre College, Jeffrey Mullaney (author), Centre College, Stephanie Fabritius (editor, instructor), Centre College, Tanya Dewey (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
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Fitch, H. 1955. Habits and adaptations of the Great Plains Skink. Ecological Monographs, 25(1): 59-83.
Hall, R. 1972. Food habits of the Great Plains Skink. American Midland Naturalist, 87(2): 258-263.
Hall, R., H. Fitch. 1971. Further observations on the Great Plains Skink. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 74(1): 93-98.
Smith, H. 1946. Handbook of Lizards. Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing Co..
Watkins, L., L. Hinesley. 1970. Notes on the distribution and abundance of the Sonoran Skink, Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 73(1): 118-119., in Western Missouri.