Salvelinus alpinusArctic charr(Also: Char; Ilkalupik; Mountain trout; Salmon trout)

Geographic Range

Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus, are a circumpolar species. Arctic char can be anadromous, resident, or landlocked depending on the location. Arctic char are native to the arctic and subarctic coasts and lakes of high elevations. They have been observed as far northwest as Canada throughout the arctic region and far east as Russia. Arctic char are present in rivers of Barents Sea basin from Volonga to Kara, Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen, Kolguev, Bear and New Zemblia islands, northern Siberia, Alaska, Canada and Greenland. In northern Russia arctic char are absent in rivers that drain into the Baltic and White Seas. Arctic char generally reproduce and overwinter in freshwater. Migration to the sea occurs early in the summer from mid-June to mid-July, where they spend roughly 50 days then return to the river. Arctic char migrate annually to the sea. (Dutil, 1986; Freyhof and Kottelat, 2008; Rikardsen, et al., 2007; Salisbury, et al., 2018)


Arctic char can be landlocked, anadromous or semi-anadromous depending on location. Arctic char that are located above 65 degrees north latitude are anadromous. For the first one to nine years of age anadromous arctic char live in freshwater. In the summer mature anadromous arctic char migrate to the sea where they spend their time in the coastal and intertidal areas. After the summer arctic char return to the frozen lakes, migrating through estuarine and brackish water. Most arctic char spend their time between 0-1 meters deep but some will go up to 3 meters deep from the water surface. The maximum depth arctic char have been recorded is 16 meters from the water surface. (Freyhof and Kottelat, 2008; Rikardsen, et al., 2007)

  • Range depth
    0 to 16 m
    0.00 to 52.49 ft
  • Average depth
    0.5 m
    1.64 ft

Physical Description

Arctic char have a distinct size dimorphism, dwarf and giant. Male and female arctic char are the same size. In Lake Store Skardørsjø, Finstad et al. (2006) recorded giant arctic char up to 60.6 cm and dwarf arctic char at 9.2 cm. The study recorded giant arctic char with masses from 0.144-1.978 kg and dwarf char mass ranged from 0.006-0.04 kg. The appearance of arctic char differs between populations. The dorsal side of the arctic char is dark in color while the ventral varies from red, yellow, and white depending on location. In the spawning season the red becomes more intense, with males exhibiting brighter coloration. Breeding arctic char have red pectoral and anal fins and yellow or gold borders on the caudal fin. The fin color of juvenile arctic char is paler than that of adults. In male nonanadromous arctic char the kype is either not present or difficult to discern. (Finstad, et al., 2006; Morton, 1965; Ortenburger, et al., 1996)

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • male more colorful
  • Range mass
    0.006 to 1.9 kg
    0.01 to 4.19 lb
  • Range length
    9.2 to 60.6 cm
    3.62 to 23.86 in


Egg development of arctic char happens in three stages: cleavage, epiboly, and organogenesis. The cleavage phase begins after fertilization and lasts until the formation of the early embryo. The cells formed during the cleavage phase start to form specialized tissues during the epiboly phase. The organogenesis phase begins when the internal organs begin to occur. Sexual differentiation occurs shortly after hatching and is controlled by the chromosomal configuration of the nucleus in the fertilized egg. A Y and X chromosome will result in a male whereas two X chromosomes result in a female. Morphological sex characteristics are set by hormones released in the alevins (newly spawned char) after hatching. Arctic char growth is indeterminate. At hatching, fry are 25 mm. Fry double in length during their first year, and at 3-5 years they range from 80-150 mm. (Morrow and Dalen, 1980; Pavlov and Osinov, 2008)


In one mating season, male arctic char are polygynous but females are monogamous. Males either guard a female or attempt to sneak-mate with a guarded female. In preparation for spawning, males will establish a territory that they defend. Females will select a location within a male's territory and dig their spawning nest. Males begin courting females by circling around them, then moving beside the females and quivering. Together, the males and females release eggs and milt into the pit area, so fertilization is external. The fertilized eggs are deposited into the gravel. (Morrow and Dalen, 1980; Pavlov and Osinov, 2008)

Arctic char spawn seasonally and in groups. Sexual maturity in arctic char ranges from 4 years to 10 years old, usually when they reach around 500-600 mm in length. Gulseth and Nilssen (2001) recorded a mean age of first time, large resident, anadromous spawners of 9.7 years for males and 10.3 for females. Some arctic char do not reach sexual maturity until they are 15 years old. Most populations spawn in the fall between September and December, though there are some landlocked populations that spawn in spring, summer or winter. Arctic char generally spawn once every other year, while some individuals only spawn every 3-4 years. Dominant males are territorial, attracting and guarding females. Males usually reproduce with more than one female in a mating season. Females can lay anywhere between 2,500 and 8,500 eggs which the males then externally fertilize. Time to hatching varies but usually occurs between 2-3 months, with the longest being 5 months. Hatching mass varies within populations. A study by Lemieux et al. (2003) found that arctic char ranged between 0.04-0.07 g upon hatching. Hatchlings are immediately independent of parents at hatching. (Egeland and Rudolfsen, 2016; Gulseth and Nilssen, 2001; Lemieux, et al., 2003; Morrow and Dalen, 1980; Pavlov and Osinov, 2008)

  • Breeding interval
    Arctic char usually breed once every 3 to 4 years
  • Breeding season
    Usually spawn in the fall, between September and December. Some populations spawn in spring, summer or winter.
  • Range number of offspring
    2,500 to 8,500
  • Range time to hatching
    2 to 5 months
  • Average time to hatching
    2 months
  • Average time to independence
    0 minutes
  • Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    4 to 15 years
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    10.3 years
  • Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    4 to 15 years
  • Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    9.7 years

Arctic char do not provide parental care post-spawning. The entire commitment is limited to nest-building by the females and territorial guarding of the area by males for as long as spawning continues. (Eilertsen, et al., 2009; Sigurjónsdóttir and Gunnarsson, 1989)

  • Parental Investment
  • no parental involvement


In wild arctic char expected lifespan is 20 years. The maximum recorded age of wild arctic char is 40 years. (Finch, 1990; Patnaik, et al., 1994; Rochet, et al., 2003)

  • Range lifespan
    Status: wild
    40 (high) years
  • Average lifespan
    Status: wild
    20 years


Arctic char are motile and natatorial. They are a migratory species that are social or found in groups during migration. Migration to the sea occurs early in the summer from mid-June to mid-July, where they spend roughly 50 days then return to the river. Arctic char migrate annually to the sea. Arctic char generally reproduce and overwinter in freshwater. They communicate with their olfactory senses when spawning. Males release a pheromone that attract ovulated females. During spawning season males are solitary and territorial. Dominance is maintained by the larger males. Arctic char have both diurnal and nocturnal feeding activity. Fish in the Family Salmonidae are regarded as visual feeders. Arctic char have been observed relying on taste and tactile stimulus rather than vision. Arctic char choose water scented with their siblings odor over water scented by an arctic char that was not their sibling. (Björnsson, 2001; Dutil, 1986; Egeland and Rudolfsen, 2016; Freyhof and Kottelat, 2008; Linzey, 2011; Morrow and Dalen, 1980; Olsén, et al., 2002; Rikardsen, et al., 2007; Salisbury, et al., 2018; Sveinsson and Toshiaki, 2000)

Home Range

Arctic char home ranges have not been recorded. Territory size of the arctic char increases with body size and declines with increased food abundance. Territories overlap and are not always exclusively defended. No exact territory sizes have been measured. (Gunnarsson and Steingrímsson, 2011)

Communication and Perception

Arctic char have a lateral line which helps them detect movements and vibrations within their surroundings. When spawning, arctic char communicate with their olfactory senses. Males release a pheromone that attract ovulating females. Fish in the Salmonidae family have generally been regarded as visual feeders. Björnsson (2001) found that arctic char in Ellidavatn, a lake close to Reykjavík, Iceland, were more likely to rely on taste and tactile stimulus than vision. Arctic char have been observed by Olsén et al. (2002) to choose water scented with their siblings odor over water scented by an arctic char that was not a sibling.

A study by Vilhunen and Hirvonen (2003) found that some juvenile arctic char had highly sensitive recognition of predator odors. Their results indicated that the innate anti-predator behavior of the juvenile fish is finely turned to respond specifically to chemical cues from different fish predators as well as the diets of predators. (Björnsson, 2001; Linzey, 2011; Olsén, et al., 2002; Sveinsson and Toshiaki, 2000; Vilhunen and Hirvonen, 2003)

Food Habits

Arctic char vary their feeding habits depending on location. Arctic char are generally opportunists. Grainger (1953) examined over 30 species in the stomachs of arctic char. Rikardsen et al. (2005) found that the marine diet of arctic char consisted mostly of a copepod species (Calanus finmarchicus) and krill (Thysanoëssa). Lake-dwelling arctic char fed mostly on insects and zoobenthos. Andrews and Lear (1956) found that some of primary food items of arctic char in Northern Labrador are capelin (Mallotus villosus), and mailed sculpin (Triglops murrayi). Arctic char are also known to eat insects, eggs, mollusks, zooplankton, amphipods and other aquatic crustaceans. Some giant arctic char have even been recorded as cannibals of their young as well as dwarf arctic char. (Andrews and Lear, 1956; Finstad, et al., 2006; Grainger, 1953; Rikardsen, et al., 2005)

  • Animal Foods
  • fish
  • eggs
  • insects
  • mollusks
  • aquatic crustaceans
  • zooplankton


Common predators of arctic char are sea otters (Enhydra lutris), polar bears (Ursus maritimus), humans (Homo sapiens), as well as other fish and larger arctic char. Arctic char are a main prey species of the apex predator, ferox trout (Salmo ferox), making arctic char key species of many of the lakes throughout their range. An anti-predator adaptation of arctic char is their ability to change coloration depending on environment. They generally have a darker color in lakes and a lighter color at sea. A study by Vilhunen and Hirvonen (2003) found that some juvenile arctic char had highly sensitive recognition of predator odors. Their results indicated that the innate anti-predator behavior of the juvenile fish is finely turned to respond specifically to chemical cues from different fish predators as well as the diets of predators. (Morrow and Dalen, 1980; Vilhunen and Hirvonen, 2003)

  • Anti-predator Adaptations
  • cryptic

Ecosystem Roles

Arctic char are a main prey species of the apex predator, ferox trout (Salmo ferox). Known parasites of arctic char are protozoans, flukes, tapeworms, nematodes, thorny-headed worms, leeches, and crustaceans. The protozoan parasites of arctic char are Haemogregarina irkalupkiki, Henneguya zschokkei, and Myxidium oviforme. The flukes parasites of arctic char are Crepidostomum farionis, Crepidostomum metoecus, Lecithaster gibbosus, Tetraonchus alascensis, and Tetraonchus articus. Flatworm parasites of arctic char are Cyathocephalus truncatus, Diphyllobothrium norvegicum, Diphyllobothrium salvelini, Diplocotyle olrikii, Eubothrium crassum, and Eubothrium salvelini. The known nematode parasites of arctic char are Contracaecum aduncum, Metabronema salvelini, and Rhabdichona denudata. Known tapeworm parasites of arctic char are Pelichnibothrium speciosum, Proteocephalus exiguus, Raphidascaris acus, and Scolex pleuronectis. Thorny-headed worm parasites of arctic char are Metechinorhynchus salmonis, Metechinorhynchus truttae, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, and Pomphorhynchus laevis. Leech parasites of arctic char are Acanthobdella peledina. Crustacean parasites of arctic char are Salmincola edwardsi, Salmincola salmonea, Salmincola salvelini, and Salmincola thymalli. Another known parasite of arctic char is Phoma herbarum, which is a species of fungus that can sometimes be seen on the skin. (; Hammar, 2003; Hoffman, 1967)

Commensal/Parasitic Species
  • protozoans Haemogregarina irkalupkiki
  • protozoans Henneguya zschokkei
  • protozoans Myxidium oviforme
  • tapeworms Diphyllobothrium ditremum
  • flukes Crepidostomum farionis
  • flukes Crepidostomum metoecus
  • flukes Lecithaster gibbosus
  • flukes Tetraonchus alascensis
  • flukes Tetraonchus articus
  • flatworms Cyathocephalus truncatus
  • flatworms Diphyllobothrium norvegicum
  • flatworms Diphyllobothrium salvelini
  • flatworms Diplocotyle olrikii
  • flatworms Eubothrium crassum
  • flatworms Eubothrium salvelini
  • nematodes Contracaecum aduncum
  • nematodes Metabronema salvelini
  • nematodes Rhabdichona denudata
  • tapeworms Pelichnibothrium speciosum
  • tapeworms Proteocephalus exiguus
  • tapeworms Raphidascaris acus
  • tapeworms Scolex pleuronectis
  • thorny-headed worms Metechinorhynchus salmonis
  • thorny-headed worms Metechinorhynchus truttae
  • thorny-headed worms Neoechinorhynchus rutili
  • thorny-headed worms Pomphorynchus laevis
  • crustacean Salmincola edwardsi
  • crustacean Salmincola salmonea
  • crustacean Salmincola salvelini
  • crustacean Salmincola thymalli
  • fungus Phoma herbarum

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Humans benefit from arctic char as a food source, as well as sport fishing and specimen collecting. Specimen collecting of arctic char benefits humans as a source for research and education. As food, arctic char are considered a highly priced delicacy. The market price of arctic char differs depending on volume. Higher prices correlate with lower volume. Prices in 2018 for arctic char average at around $9.90 per kg of dressed fish. Historically, prices for arctic char have been recorded as high as $24.18 per kg for fillets. (Freyhof and Kottelat, 2008)

  • Positive Impacts
  • food
  • research and education

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There are no known negative impacts of arctic char on humans. (Freyhof and Kottelat, 2008)

Conservation Status

Arctic char are listed on the IUCN Red List as a species of "Least Concern." The US Federal List, CITES appendices, and State of Michigan List have no special status listings for arctic char.

The biggest threat to arctic char is humans. Another threat to arctic char is stream acidification. In southern Scotland, several populations of arctic char have gone extinct due to acidification of the streams. Many arctic char populations in Ireland have gone extinct due to lake acidification and reduced water quality, caused by domestic and agricultural pollution. A suspected threat that some arctic char populations deal with is lack of genetic variation. The arctic char population in Lake Siamaa in southeast Finland relies on aquaculture in order to survive, which is believed to be because the lack of genetic variation in the native population causes egg and alevin mortality as well as disease susceptibility.

Management of stream acidification in southern Scotland is a possible conservation effort for arctic char. Conservation methods have been proposed in Ireland as an attempt to protect the populations of arctic char that remain. Some of the proposed methods include implementing sustainable development, transplanting juvenile stock, control of nutrient input, and preventing the introduction of predatory fish in lakes that contain arctic char. Resupplying the stocks of arctic char in lakes is another conservation effort that is made in some locations, such as Lake Siamaa in southeast Finland. (Freyhof and Kottelat, 2008; Maitland, et al., 1991; Primmer, et al., 1999)


Miranda Flack (author), Radford University, Layne DiBuono (editor), Radford University, Lindsey Lee (editor), Radford University, Kioshi Lettsome (editor), Radford University, Karen Powers (editor), Radford University, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.


Arctic Ocean

the body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America which occurs mostly north of the Arctic circle.

Atlantic Ocean

the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. It is the second largest ocean in the world after the Pacific Ocean.

World Map


living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map


living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.

World Map

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.

brackish water

areas with salty water, usually in coastal marshes and estuaries.


an animal that mainly eats meat


uses smells or other chemicals to communicate


the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.


having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.

  1. active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
dominance hierarchies

ranking system or pecking order among members of a long-term social group, where dominance status affects access to resources or mates


animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature


an area where a freshwater river meets the ocean and tidal influences result in fluctuations in salinity.

external fertilization

fertilization takes place outside the female's body


union of egg and spermatozoan


A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.


mainly lives in water that is not salty.


a distribution that more or less circles the Arctic, so occurring in both the Nearctic and Palearctic biogeographic regions.

World Map

Found in northern North America and northern Europe or Asia.

indeterminate growth

Animals with indeterminate growth continue to grow throughout their lives.


An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.

intertidal or littoral

the area of shoreline influenced mainly by the tides, between the highest and lowest reaches of the tide. An aquatic habitat.


offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).


makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds


eats mollusks, members of Phylum Mollusca


Having one mate at a time.


having the capacity to move from one place to another.


specialized for swimming

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.


active during the night


reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.


chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species


an animal that mainly eats fish


an animal that mainly eats plankton


having more than one female as a mate at one time


"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.

saltwater or marine

mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season


reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female


associates with others of its species; forms social groups.


lives alone


uses touch to communicate


defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement


movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others


uses sight to communicate


animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)


Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Central and Arctic Region. Common parasites, diseases and injuries of freshwater fishes in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. 30. Sarnia, Ontario, Canada: Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Central and Arctic Region. 1999.

Alanärä, A., S. Winberg, E. Brännäs, A. Kiessling, E. Höglund, U. Elofsson. 1998. Feeding behaviour, brain serotonergic activity levels, and energy reserves of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) within a dominance hierarchy. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 76/2: 212-220.

Andrews, C., E. Lear. 1956. The biology of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.) in Northern Labrador. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 13/6: 843-860.

Björnsson, B. 2001. Diel changes in the feeding behaviour of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Ellidavatn, a small lake in southwest Iceland. Limnologica, 31/4: 281-288.

Dutil, J. 1986. Energetic constraints and spawning interval in the anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Copeia, 1986/4: 945-955.

Egeland, T., G. Rudolfsen. 2016. Status specific yailoring of sperm behavior in an external fertilizer. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 4/135: 135.

Eilertsen, E., B. Bårdsen, S. Liljedal, G. Rudolfsen, I. Folstad. 2009. Experimental evidence for paternal effects on offspring growth rate in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 276: 129-136.

Finch, C. 1990. Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Finstad, A., O. Ugedal, O. Berg, L. Persson. 2006. Growing large in a low grade environment: Size dependent foraging gain and niche shifts to cannibalism in arctic char. Oikos, 112/1: 73-82.

Freyhof, J., M. Kottelat. 2008. "Salvelinus alpinus" (On-line). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T19877A9102572. Accessed September 10, 2018 at

Grainger, E. 1953. On the age, growth, migration, reproductive potential and feeding habits of the Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) of Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 10/6: 326-370.

Gulseth, O., K. Nilssen. 2001. Life-history traits of charr, salvelinus alpinus, from a high arctic watercourse on Svalbard. Arctic, 54/1: 1-11.

Gunnarsson, G., S. Steingrímsson. 2011. Contrasting patterns of territoriality and foraging mode in two stream-dwelling salmonids, Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 68/12: 2090-2100.

Hammar, J. 2003. Cannibals and parasites: conflicting regulators of bimodality in high latitude Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus. Oikos, 88/1: 33-47.

Hoffman, G. 1967. Parasites of North American Freshwater Fishes. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

Jonsson, B., K. Hindar. 1982. Reproductive strategy of dwarf and normal Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from Vangsvatnet Lake, Western Norway. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 39/10: 1404-1413.

Jungwirth, M. 1984. The temperature dependence of embryonic development of grayling (Thymallus thymallus), Danube salmon (Hucho hucho), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Aquaculture, 38/4: 315-327.

Kahilainen, K., S. Thomas, O. Keva, B. Hayden, R. Knudsen, A. Eloranta, K. Tuohiluoto, P. Amundsen, T. Malinen, A. Järvinen. 2016. Seasonal dietary shift to zooplankton influences stable isotope ratios and total mercury concentrations in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)). Hydrobiologia, 783/1: 47-63.

Klemetsen, A., P. Amundsen, J. Dempson, B. Jonsson, N. Jonsson, M. O'Connell, E. Mortensen. 2003. Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.): A review of aspects of their life histories. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 12/1: 1-59.

Lemieux, H., N. Le François, P. Blier. 2003. The early ontogeny of digestive and metabolic enzyme activities in two commercial strains of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.). Journal of Experimental Zoology, 299/1: 151-60.

Linzey, D. 2011. Vertebrate Biology 2nd (second) Edition. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.

Maitland, P., L. May, D. Jones, C. Doughty. 1991. Ecology and conservation of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), in Loch Doon, an acidifying loch in Southwest Scotland. Biological Conservation, 55/2: 167-197.

Mecklenburg, C., A. Mecklenburg, L. Thorsteinson. 2002. Fishes of Alaska. Bethesda, MD: American Fisheries Society.

Moore, J., I. Moore. 1974. Food and growth of Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), in the Cumberland Sound area of Baffin Island. Journal of Fish Biology, 6/1: 79-92.

Morrow, J., M. Dalen. 1980. The Freshwater Fishes of Alaska. Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Northwest Publishing Company.

Morton, W. 1965. The taxonomic significance of the kype in American salmonids. Copeia, 1965/1: 14-19.

Olsén, K., M. Grahn, J. Lohm. 2002. Influence of MHC on sibling discrimination in Arctic Char, Salvelinus alpinus (L.). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 28/4: 783-795.

Ortenburger, A., M. Jansen, S. Whyte. 1996. Nonsurgical videolaparoscopy for determination of reproductive status of the Arctic charr. The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 37/2: 96-100.

Patnaik, B., N. Mahapatro, B. Jena. 1994. Ageing in fishes. Gerontology, 40/2-4: 113-132.

Pavlov, D., A. Osinov. 2008. Reproduction and development in the dwarf form of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from Lake Davatchan, Transbaikalia. Journal of Ichthyology, 48/1: 96-113.

Primmer, C., T. Aho, A. Estoup, J. Cornuet, E. Ranta. 1999. Microsatellite analysis of hatchery stocks and natural populations of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, from the nordic region: Implications for conservation. Hereditas, 130/3: 277-289.

Rikardsen, A., P. Amundsen, P. Bjørn, M. Johansen. 2005. Comparison of growth, diet and food consumption of sea-run and lake-dwelling Arctic charr. Journal of Fish Biology, 57/5: 1172-1188.

Rikardsen, A., O. Diserud, J. Elliott, J. Dempson, J. Sturlaugsson, A. Jensen. 2007. The marine temperature and depth preferences of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and sea trout (Salmo trutta), as recorded by data storage tags. Fisheries Oceanography, 16/5: 436-447.

Rochet, M., P. Cornillon, R. Sabatier, D. Pontier. 2003. Comparative analysis of phylogenetic and fishing effects in life history patterns of teleost fishes. Oikos, 91/2: 255-270.

Salisbury, S., C. Booker, G. McCracken, T. Knight, D. Keefe, R. Perry, D. Ruzzante. 2018. Genetic divergence among and within Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) populations inhabiting landlocked and sea-accessible sites in Labrador, Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 75/8: 1256-1269.

Sigurjónsdóttir, H., K. Gunnarsson. 1989. Alternative mating tactics of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, in Thingvallavatn, Iceland. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 26/3: 159-176.

Svedäng, H. 1991. On the Reproductive Ecology of the Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.) (Ph.D. Dissertation). Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University.

Sveinsson, T., J. Toshiaki. 2000. Olfactory sensitivity and specificity of Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus, to a putative male pheromone, prostaglandin F2α. Physiology & Behavior, 69/3: 301-307.

Vilhunen, S., H. Hirvonen. 2003. Innate antipredator responses of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) depend on predator species and their diet. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 55/1: 1-10.