Turkey vultures range as far north as the southern border of Canada and as far south as Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Over the past few decades, they have been expanding their geographic range northward. This expansion may be a result of laws and restrictions on hunting this species. (Wallace, 2004)
Turkey vultures occupy a diverse range of habitats. They are found in forested as well as open environments. Turkey vultures can be found anywhere they can effectively find a carrion food supply. They are easily habituated to humans and human development. (Wallace, 2004)
There are six subspecies of turkey vultures: three in North America and three in South and Central America. Cathartes aura septentrionalis is found in the eastern United States and west into Minnesota, Kansas, Oklahoma, and eastern Texas. Cathartes aura meridionalis is located mainly west of C. a. septentrionalis and into Baja California, excluding the lower Colorado River valley. Cathartes aura aura is found in the lower Colorado River valley, including most of Arizona, and in southern New Mexico and Texas. Cathartes aura ruficollis is found from Costa Rica south to northern Argentina and east of the Andes, Cathartes aura jota is found in the highlands of southern Colombia through Argentina, and Cathartes aura falklandica is found west of the Andes from Ecuador and Peru through Chile and on the Falkland Islands. (Palmer, 1988)
Depending on the subspecies, turkey vultures vary from 0.85 to 2 kg and can have a total length between 64 and 81 cm. Sexes do not differ, all have a brownish black plumage with a bare head and neck. The head and neck skin color can vary from pink to bright red. Turkey vultures are commonly mistaken for black vultures. However, they can be distinguished by their grey primary and secondary feathers and their black head and neck color. (Wallace, 2004)
Based on their wing surface to weight ratio, turkey vultures have light wing loading. This makes them more buoyant in air than other vultures and better able to utilize thermals to help them stay in flight with minimal energy usage. (Wallace, 2004)
To start the mating ritual, several birds gather on the ground and begin hopping around in a circle with wings partially spread. In flight a bird might closely follow a potential mate while continuing a ritual of flapping and diving. (Kaufman, 1996)
Adult mated pairs spend much more time with one another than with other vultures. Mating-pair bonds last throughout the breeding season and often all year long. (Rabenold, 1986)
Breeding takes place from March to June in North America. Nest sites are usually found in sheltered areas such as hollow trees or logs, crevices in cliffs, or in old buildings. Little or no nest is actually built in these sites. Their eggs are laid on debris or the flat bottom of the nest site. Eggs are off-white and marked with brown and lavender. Incubation time is typically 30 to 40 days. Young reach the fledging stage at 70 to 80 days old and are independent about a week later. (Kaufman, 1996)
Turkey vulture chicks are altricial. Adults care for them for 70 to 80 days by regurgitating well-digested food several times daily and providing some protection. Both adults care fr the young. If adults are threatened when nesting, they might flee, regurgitate on the intruder, or play dead. (Fergus, 2003)
There is little recorded information on the lifespan of turkey vultures. A banded individual lived up to 16 years and 10 months. One study demonstrated that up to one-fifth of all adult turkey vultures die each year. (Palmer, 1988)
Turkey vultures usually roost in large community groups, but search for food independently during daylight hours. Groups as large as several hundred vultures have been observed to roost together, sometimes including black vultures. Populations in colder areas migrate seasonally to warmer weather. (Fergus, 2003)
Turkey vulture home range sizes depend on the availability of food. They will travel as far as necessary to find carrion. If food becomes scarce in one area, they move to other areas. A study in South Carolina found that in non-agricultural areas, vulture home ranges were approximately twice as large as those found in neighboring residential or agricultural areas. Turkey vultures do not defend territories. (Kelly, et al., 2007; Wallace, 2004)
Like most vultures, turkey vultures lack complexity in vocalizations. Most vocalizations are grunts, hisses, and barking sounds, used mainly for predator deterrence. Visual cues are used in mating rituals and may be used in other forms of communication.
Turkey vultures have a well-developed sense of smell and are one of the only species of birds worldwide that uses smell extensively. They use their keen sense of smell and their vision to locate carcasses. Black vultures take advantage of this, following turkey vultures to carcasses and then excluding them. (Stevenson and Anderson, 1994)
Turkey vulture diets vary depending on their habitat. Vultures living around agriculture feed mainly on the carrion of domestic animals, mostly livestock. They also rely heavily on roadkill in areas of human development. A study in South Carolina found that in non-agricultural areas, their primary source of food was wild carrion. Turkey vultures preferentially feed on smaller carcasses, but will feed on dead animals of any size. They prefer freshly dead carcasses but cannot get through the thick skin of larger animals, so must wait for some decay to enable entering body cavities. To find their food they rely on their keen sense of smell and vision. They are one of the few bird species that has an acute sense of smell. In some cases, turkey vultures have been seen eating rotten fruits and vegetables and occasionally they prey on insects, reptiles, or bird nestlings. Turkey vultures have also been observed eating coyote and domestic animal dung. (Kelly, et al., 2007; Wallace, 2004)
Turkey vulture chicks and eggs are preyed on by mammalian nest predators, such as raccoons. Young and adults are sometimes preyed on by owls. Although turkey vultures have few natural predators, they are known for their defense mechanism of regurgitating semi-digested meat--which deters most predators due to its putrid smell.
Most documented mortality of turkey vultures is caused by human interactions, including collisions with vehicles and structures and entrapment in fencing and leg-hold traps. Problems caused by black vultures are sometimes blamed on turkey vultures by association. Humans sometimes destroy turkey vultures and their roosts. (Lowney, 1999)
In 1994 there was an observation at Isla Espiritu Santo, Baja California, Mexico, of yellow-footed gulls (Larus livens) attacking a turkey vulture that had flown near their breeding colony. (Rodríguez-Estrella, et al., 1995)
Because turkey vultures are major consumer of carrion, they play an important role in biodegradation. (Kaufman, 1996)
Black vultures follow turkey vultures to carcasses and then aggressively out-compete them at the carcass. (Stevenson and Anderson, 1994)
There are multiple parasitic bacteria that have been associated with turkey vultures. In a study in Texas, two ectoparasites from families Cimididae and Hippoboscidae were found to be on some turkey vultures. Another study at the University of California showed that turkey vultures are capable of contracting Chlamydiosis. This was observed in a captive subject at a raptor rehabilitation center in California in 1983. (Fowler, et al., 1990; Wilson and Oliver, Jr., 1978)
Turkey vultures are important as scavengers. They remove dead carcasses, which can pose a health risk to humans and livestock.
Because turkey vultures commonly roost with black vultures where they co-occur, they are sometimes associated with the negative impacts of black vultures. In Virginia, black vultures have been caught killing young livestock and harassing, injuring, or even killing domestic pets. Numerous non-lethal attempts have been made to remove vultures from the area include: deter these roosts by removing carrion, moving expectant cattle to alternate pastures, pyrotechnics to scare off vultures, and monitoring livestock several times a day. These efforts are generally ineffective. Lethal methods of removal are common among farmers to prevent further economic losses. Turkey vultures rarely kill small animals, relying almost exclusively on carrion. (Lowney, 1999)
Turkey vultures are a common species throughout their range. The IUCN lists them as a species of Least Concern.
Tanya Dewey (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Adam Farmer (author), Radford University, Karen Powers (editor, instructor), Radford University.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
helps break down and decompose dead plants and/or animals
an animal that mainly eats meat
flesh of dead animals.
Found in coastal areas between 30 and 40 degrees latitude, in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Vegetation is dominated by stands of dense, spiny shrubs with tough (hard or waxy) evergreen leaves. May be maintained by periodic fire. In South America it includes the scrub ecotone between forest and paramo.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
an area where a freshwater river meets the ocean and tidal influences result in fluctuations in salinity.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
generally wanders from place to place, usually within a well-defined range.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
an animal that mainly eats dead animals
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
A terrestrial biome with low, shrubby or mat-like vegetation found at extremely high latitudes or elevations, near the limit of plant growth. Soils usually subject to permafrost. Plant diversity is typically low and the growing season is short.
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
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