Ambylomma maculatum can be found over a fairly wide area in the western hemisphere and is considered to be Neotropical and Nearctic. In the United States where it is heavily prevalent they are mainly found in the southern states surrounding the Gulf Coast from Texas to Florida and even up the eastern coast line. This distribution has lead to the tick’s common name of “Gulf Coast tick”. Ambylomma maculutum can also be found in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, Columbia, Venezuela, and Ecuador though there is a lack of precise data for exactly where in these countries the ticks are most predominant. (Mangold, et al., 2005; Sumner and Durden, 2007)
- Terrestrial Biomes
Adultvaries slightly by gender. Both sexes of the tick have flat eyes and spurs on their fourth coxa that do not quite reach the anus’ level. They also contain a single external spur and an indistinct internal spur on the first coxa. The males have a complete marginal groove between their antennas which the females lack but the females have a glabrous notum but males do not. A comma shaped spiracular plate is seen in both sexes along with a caudal process of the plate which is about half the size of the last festoon. Both the male and female have palpal femurs that double the length of their palpal genu and have chitinous tubercles on the back side of the festoons. While these tubercles are present they are fairly minute and are completely missing on the central festoon. The second to fourth tibia of the ticks have spines and the basis capituli contain laterally produced auriculae and ventral processes. The baisis capituli in these ticks is also fairly straight but contains convex margins in the postero-lateral area.
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes colored or patterned differently
- sexes shaped differently
- Development - Life Cycle
There is not much known about the specific way (Oliver, 1989)mates except that the males of the species use pheromones to attract the females for mating on a host. Based off of general ixodid tick behavior, however, it can be assumed that the males and females mate with many partners and that the process probably uses the mouth parts of the male to transfer sperm to the female via a spermatophor.
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
In the genus Amblyomma, a female prepares for reproduction by partially engorging herself and then slowing her feeding rate until mating. Mating occurs through the transfer of a spermataphore from the male to the female via the male’s mouth parts and the female’s vagina. Males can mate multiple times, even with the same female. Once a female has she quickly finishes engorging herself to full capacity and drops off the host in order to lay its eggs. The number of eggs depends on the size of the blood meal inside the female. Normally, large Amblyomma species can produce anywhere from 15,000 to 23,000 eggs at a time. Egg production in follows a circadian rhythm. After egg laying the female, like most ixodid tick females, likely dies. (Oliver, 1989)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
There isn’t much information specific to the parental investment of (Oliver, 1989)but as a general trend for most of the other ixodid ticks there is no parental investment after the eggs are laid.
- Parental Investment
The specific life span ofis unknown.
Communication and Perception
- Other Communication Modes
Adult Ambylomma maculatum are parasitic blood feeders and can be found on a wide range of animals. They are moderately host specific and can be found on species of Equidae, Canidae, and Bovidae though they usually prefer larger ungulates. Larval and nymph instars of the tick also suck the blood of their hosts. The larval stage attaches mainly to ground dwelling birds while the nymphs prefer smaller mammals. Humans can be parasitized by this tick. (Ketchum, et al., 2005; Mangold, et al., 2005; Sumner and Durden, 2007; Teel, et al., 1988)
- Animal Foods
There is no known specific predators on.
- Ecosystem Impact
- Large ungulates
- Heptazoon americanum, Rickettsia parkeri
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
There are no documented economic advantages of.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
The most likely economic damage that Rickettsia parkeri, and Hepatozoon americanum. These diseases can affect people’s ability to work, produce goods, and take time and money to treat. , a common cattle parasite, can irritate the cows on which they feed. (Ketchum, et al., 2005; Mathew, et al., 1999; Mathew, et al., 2003; Sumner and Durden, 2007)potentially causes are its vectoring of various diseases like
does not have any conservation status.
Sameer Singh (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Heidi Liere (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, John Marino (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Barry OConnor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Renee Mulcrone (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
- causes disease in humans
an animal which directly causes disease in humans. For example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes (elephantiasis and river blindness).
- causes or carries domestic animal disease
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
- polarized light
light waves that are oriented in particular direction. For example, light reflected off of water has waves vibrating horizontally. Some animals, such as bees, can detect which way light is polarized and use that information. People cannot, unless they use special equipment.
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
an animal that mainly eats blood
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
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