occupies areas from North Carolina to Florida
and west to the Mississippi River. It is commonly found in the
coastal states of the Southeast. Its westernmost range enters
into eastern Louisiana. The northern range extends into
southeastern Virginia (Wright 1949).
Inhabits sandy areas, cultivated fields, pine barrens and hammocks (Mount 1975).
is a medium-sized toad in which adults of the species can attain snout vent lengths between 41mm and 92mm. Males usually average between 42-82mm and females slightly larger between 44-92mm (Wright 1949). Much larger specimens, however, have been found on islands along the coasts of Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina. The most distinguishing characteristic is the knobs found on the head which are actually extensions of the interorbital ridges. As usual with a member of the family Bufonidae, parotoid glands are present and the skin is warty. The warts are often spine-tipped. The spotted and mottled dorsal coloration can vary from shades of brick red to black. The ventral side is lighter. Post orbital ridges are not in contact with the parotoids but are connected to them by a backward projecting spur (Mount 1975).
- Development - Life Cycle
This species breeds during wet-weather periods from around the first of March to late May (Mount 1975). However, occasionally continue on to September (Wright 1949). Breeding usually occurs on the edges of small permanent ponds, woodland pools, or flooded depressions. As is the case of closely related Bufo fowleri,will never breed in creeks or rivers. The eggs which number between 2500-3000 are laid in long coils of jelly which hatch within 2-4 days. spends 30-55 days as a tadpole before metamorphasing upon attaining a length between 6.5-11mm (Wright 1949).
- Key Reproductive Features
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Average lifespan
- 10 years
- Average lifespan
- Key Behaviors
generally feeds on a variety of insects and
invertebrates (Bullpine Forestry 1999).
Jayson Egeler (author), Michigan State University, James Harding (editor), Michigan State University.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
- external fertilization
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
"Southern Toad" (On-line). Accessed November 15, 1999 at http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/narcam/idguide/bterrest.htm.
"Southern Toad" (On-line). Accessed November 15, 1999 at http://www.auburn.edu/academic/science_math/cosam/museum/herps/southern.html.
"Southern Toad" (On-line). Accessed December 6th, 1999 at http://bullpine.forestry.lsu.edu/recwww/wildweb/herpdoc/soutoad.htm.
Conant, R., J. Collins. 1998. Peterson Field Guides, Amphibians and Reptiles 3rd edition. Houghton Mifflin Company.
Mount, R. 1975. Reptiles and Amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station.
Wright, A., A. Wright. 1949. Handbook of Frogs and Toads of the U.S. and Canada 3rd edition. Ithaca N.Y.: Comstock Publishing Co..