Asian long-horned beetles inhabit areas with hardwood (warehouses) and hardwood forests. They are found terrestrially throughout temperate zones of Eastern Asia and parts of the United States living in various species of hardwood trees. (Smith, et al., December 2001)
- Terrestrial Biomes
Adultare between 20 and 35 mm long, and 7 and 12 mm wide. Their bodies are glossy black with approximately 20 white spots on each wing cover. The antennae of male beetles are 1.5 times as long as their bodies, and the antennae of female beetles are 1.3 times as long as their bodies. The antennae of both sexes are striped black and white. The upper sections of the legs of the adults are whitish-blue. can be distinguished from related species by the markings on the wing covers and the pattern of the antennae.
Larvae can reach to 50 mm in length. They are elongated and cylindrical in shape, pale in color and have a varied texture on the underside. (Cavey, February 8, 2000; Frank, February 2001; Smith, et al., December 2001)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes shaped differently
- Range length
- 20 to 35 mm
- 0.79 to 1.38 in
- Development - Life Cycle
Male beetles participate in mate guarding, often staying for hours after copulation to prevent the female from mating again with other males. Females may mate with a single male multiple times or with multiple males. (Smith, et al., December 2001)
- Mating System
Adult asian long-horned beetles are capable of mating as soon as they emerge from the host tree. Mating takes place on the branches and trunks of host trees between 12:00 PM and 6:00 PM. The female beetle lays an average of 32 eggs, one at a time, over an 11 day period. The eggs hatch in another 11 days. Over their lifetime, females produce between 30 and 80 eggs. (Cavey, February 8, 2000; Milius, June 12, 1999; Smith, et al., December 2001)
- Range eggs per season
- 30 to 80
- Parental Investment
- no parental involvement
In the wild, Asian Long-Horned Beetles require between one to three years to reach maturity. The adult lifespan is about 50 days for males and 66 days for females. The lifespan of (Cavey, February 8, 2000; Smith, et al., December 2001)in captivity is not known.
- Average lifespan
- 55-66 days
- Average lifespan
Communication and Perception
- Other Communication Modes
- Perception Channels
- Primary Diet
- eats sap or other plant foods
- Plant Foods
- wood, bark, or stems
- sap or other plant fluids
Aside from being able to fly away from predators, asian long-horned beetles do not have any documented anti-predator adaptions. (Smith, June 1999)
- Known Predators
Asian long-horned beetles are detrimental to any ecosystem they inhabit. In China, approximately 40% of poplar plantations have been damaged, meaning the wood is good only for packing material. In the Ningxia Province of China, more than 50 million trees were destroyed over a three-year period because of the beetles. These beetles have the ability to significantly alter the composition of North American hardwood forests. It is estimated that between nearly one-third of all trees would have to be destroyed in the United States if (Cavey, February 8, 2000; Nowak, et al., 2001; Smith, June 1999)were to spread throughout the country. The potential for widespread distribution in North America and the attack of a wide range of host trees is also very possible.
- various species of trees particularly poplars and maples
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Econimic benefits derived from asian long-horned beetles have not yet been discovered.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
The economic effects of asian long-horned beetles in their native environment are not documented. In the United States, (Nowak, et al., 2001)have the potential to significantly impact industries such as maple syrup, timber, and nursery. Every tree that is found to have been infested by beetles must be destroyed in order to prevent the further spread of . As of the summer of 2000, more than 4,000 trees were removed in New York, and another 1,400 were destroyed in the Chicago area. This resulted in total costs of more than $25 million dollars for both cities. It has been estimated that if the infestation is not curbed in the United States, it could result in a total national cost of $669 billion. The beetle has already had an impact on the shipping industry. All cargo leaving China and Hong Kong in wooden pallets must undergo inspections before exiting the port, which increases the price of shipping. Wooden pallets were the method by which Asian Long-Horned Beetles entered the United States.
- Negative Impacts
- crop pest
There are currently no measures being taken to conserve this species.
Anoplophora nobilis. (Smith, et al., December 2001)is also known as
Sara Diamond (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Laurie Johnson (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Kerry Yurewicz (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
helps break down and decompose dead plants and/or animals
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
Referring to a mating system in which a female mates with several males during one breeding season (compare polygynous).
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
Cavey, J. February 8, 2000. "*Anoplophora glabripennis* (Motschulsky)" (On-line). Accessed March 19, 2002 at http://www.exoticforestpests.org/english/Detail.CFM?tblEntry__PestID=53.
Frank, P. February 2001. The Asian longhorned beetle. New York State Conservationist, Vol. 55, No. 4: 19-21.
Milius, S. June 12, 1999. Son of Long-Horned Beetles. Science News, Vol. 155, No. 24: 380.
Nowak, D., J. Pasek, R. Sequeira, D. Crane, V. Mastro. 2001. Potential Effect of *Anoplophora glabripennis* (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on Urban Trees in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology, 94(1): 116-122.
Smith, M. "Global Invasive Species Database, *Anoplophora glabripennis* (land invertebrate)" (On-line). Accessed March 22, 2002 at http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=111&fr=1&sts=.
Smith, M. June 1999. "The Potential For Biological Control of Asian Longhorned Beetle in the U.S." (On-line). Accessed March 20, 2002 at http://www.entomology.wisc.edu/mbcn/fea606.html.
Smith, M., J. Bancroft, G. Li, R. Gao, S. Teale. December 2001. Dispersal of *Anoplophora glabripennis* (Cerambycidae). Environmental Entomology, Vol. 30, No. 6: 1036-1040.