Trident nose-leaf bats are found in Northern Africa and the Middle east.lives in some of the hottest areas in the world, spanning the region from Morocco to northern India.
There are two sub-species, A.t. tridens and A.t. murriana. Asellia t. murriana is commonly found only from Egypt to Saudi Arabia and into Israel and Jordan, , while A.t. tridens is found on either side of the range of A. t. muriana. (Qumsiyeh, 1996; Qumsiyeh, et al., 1991; Weber, 1955; Yom-Tov and Kadmon, 1998)
Although successful in all habitats within its range, from from the desert to the Mediterranean coast, the sub-species A. t. murriana is found in some of the hottest areas of the desert where no other bats can seem to survive. (Qumsiyeh, et al., 1991; Weber, 1955)
- Other Habitat Features
Rhinolophidae, which is known for its nose-leaves. The nose-leaf is distinct, with three cusps (trident) on the leaf; the outer two are blunted, whereas the central one is pointed. (Pint and Pint, 2005; Fergusun, 2002; Pint and Pint, 2005; Weber, 1955)is a member of the family
There are two distinct color phases in this species, with one other variant sometimes appearing. The first phase is pale grayish-brown, and the second is pale orange-brown or silty-yellow with a whitish underside. The additional variant is described as having a reddish hue. (Fergusun, 2002; Qumsiyeh, 1996; Weber, 1955)
Some other important characteristics for identifying these bats in the field are its lack of a tragus, and its projecting tail, which can extend up to 5 mm beyond the flight membrane. Specimens are generally 66-90 mm in total length. (Hoath, 2003)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range length
- 66 to 90 mm
- 2.60 to 3.54 in
The mating system ofhas yet to be studied in much detail.
Not much is known about the details of mating behavior and reproduction within the species, however, the gestation period is estimated to be 9 to 10 weeks. These bats normally bear a single offspring, which is born in early June. They probably mate just before moving back to their summer roosts. ("African Wildlife Foundation", 2006; Qumsiyeh, et al., 1991)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Once yearly
- Breeding season
- Early spring
- Average number of offspring
- Range gestation period
- 9 to 10 weeks
- Average weaning age
- 4 months
- Range time to independence
- 5 to 6 weeks
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 2 years
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 2 years
No specific information is available for this species. However, as in all mammals, females care for and nourish their young until they reach independence.
- Parental Investment
No information regarding the lifespan of these bats could be found.
is a highly mobile, highly colonial species. These bats tend to roost in the hundreds to thousands in whatever shelter they can find, usually in caves, cliff crevices, and older or abandoned buildings.
They leave their roosts in the late evening when their prey items (especially moths) are abundant and easier to catch. Their flight pattern is described as low, with rapid swerving and twisting, much like a butterfly. They become torpid during daily roosting.
No information is available.
Communication and Perception
It is not known to what extent members of this species communicate with one another; however, it is likely that there is some scent communication, like pheromones, because they are mammals. In fact there is extensive use of scent marking within another Chiropteran order, Emballonuridae.
The most intriguing thing about bats must be their use of echolocation. Within the sub-order Microchiroptera all species use this as one of their primary sources of perception.
Because this species is nocturnal and insectivorous, individuals rely mainly on echolocation to locate and hunt down prey. In fact, this species' ability to negotiate through complex environments has been extensively researched, ("Echolocation and obstacle avoidance in the hipposiderid bat Asellia tridens ", 1979)can detect and avoid wires with a diameter of only .65 mm.
- Other Communication Modes
An in-depth study ofgives us a good estimate of its diet. The following is a list of the main prey found in guano in Israel:
Beetles (Coleoptera): this is the main prey item in the diet of . The diet of the other bats in the area also consisted mainly of this prey item, in fact compared to the competition; Asellia was the least successful with this particular prey item.
Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera): was much better at catching this prey compared to the competition. This isn't too surprising, as many people have described their flight to be very quick and agile.
Crickets and grasshoppers (Orthoptera): was also much more successful at catching these prey items than were their competitors.
Flies (Diptera): was also quite successful at catching these prey items.
True bugs (Heteroptera): was the worst amongst other bats in the area at catching these prey items, however, this group did not make up a significant portion of any of their diets.
Comparatively, (Whitaker Jr., 2002)had the most diverse diet of all sympatric bat species, and excelled above all in their ability to catch moths and butterflies.
- Animal Foods
There are no known natural predators of this species. Young in roosts may be taken by predators such as snakes or other small, agile carnivores.
Argas fischeri). (Weber, 1955)plays a large role in controlling insect populations in its habitat. Nothing is known about its parasites, except that it is host to a tick (
- Argas fischeri
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Colonies ofcan consume vast numbers of insects, which may be crop pests or disease vectors.
- Positive Impacts
- controls pest population
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no recorded negative economic impacts due to (Weber, 1955), although it could be considered a nuisance since it at times roosts within man-made structures.
- Negative Impacts
- household pest
Trident leaf-nosed bats are not currently protected by any legislation, populations seem stable and the species is widespread. Like all bats, populations may be threatened by roost disturbance, pesticides, and human persecution.
Tanya Dewey (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Ryan Anderson (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor, instructor), Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
used loosely to describe any group of organisms living together or in close proximity to each other - for example nesting shorebirds that live in large colonies. More specifically refers to a group of organisms in which members act as specialized subunits (a continuous, modular society) - as in clonal organisms.
- desert or dunes
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
The process by which an animal locates itself with respect to other animals and objects by emitting sound waves and sensing the pattern of the reflected sound waves.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
- scrub forest
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sound above the range of human hearing for either navigation or communication or both
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
2006. "African Wildlife Foundation" (On-line). African Wildlife Foundation. Accessed March 20, 2006 at http://www.awf.org/wildlives/62.
1979. Echolocation and obstacle avoidance in the hipposiderid bat Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology, Volume 131, Number 2: 161-167..
Fergusun, W. 2002. Mammals of Israel. Hewlett, NY: Gefen Publishers.
Hoath, R. 2003. A Field Guide to Mammals of Egypt. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
Pint, J., S. Pint. 2005. "Saudi Bats" (On-line). Accessed March 17, 2006 at http://www.saudicaves.com/saudibats/.
Qumsiyeh, M., Z. Amr, R. Al-Oran. 1991. Family Hipposideridae Leaf-Nosed Bats Genus Asellia. Turkish Journal of Zoology, Volume 22, Issue 4: 279. Accessed March 17, 2006 at http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/biology/index.php.
Qumsiyeh, M. 1996. Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University: Lubbock : Texas Tech University Press.
Roberts, C. 2006. "Hipposideros commersoni" (On-line). Animal Diversity Web. Accessed March 20, 2006 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hipposideros_commersoni.html.
Weber, N. 1955. Notes on Iraq Insectivora and Chiroptera. Journal of Mammalogy, Vol 36. No1: pp. 123-126. Accessed March 17, 2006 at http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2372%28195502%2936%3a1%3c123%3anoiiac%3e2.0.co#b2-t.
Whitaker Jr., J. 2002. The diet of some insectivorous bats from northern Israel. Mammalian Biology, Volume 67, Number 6: 378-380. Accessed March 17, 2006 at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/urban/161/2002/00000067/00000006/art00053;jsessionid=41ii53pkh7iad.alice.
Yom-Tov, Y., R. Kadmon. 1998. Insectivorous bats in Israel. Diversity and Distribution, Volume 1: 63-70.