North African hedgehogs are native to the northern regions of Africa from Morocco to Libya. They have also been introduced to nearby areas, including the southern, mountainous regions of Spain, France, and the islands off the coast of Africa, such as the Canary Islands and the Balearics. Introduced populations in France are now extinct. (Hutterer, 2005; Nogales, et al., 2006; Stone, 1995; Vriends, 2000)
North African hedgehogs prefer arid climates, but are found in a broad range of habitats including dry Mediterranean scrub, grasslands, pastures, cultivated fields, semi-desert, and gardens. They are also found near human populations. They are typically found at altitudes of 400 m or less, although elevations of up to 900 m have been observed in Morocco. (Amori, et al., 2011; Stone, 1995; Vriends, 2000; World Wildlife Fund and Hogan, 2007)
- Range elevation
- 0 to 900 m
- 0.00 to 2952.76 ft
North African hedgehogs range in length from 200 to 250 mm. They are paler in color than hedgehogs from Europe, with the possible exception of Erinaceus europaeus. The most useful diagnostic feature is the spine-free “part” on the crown of the head, which appears as a lack of a widow’s peak often seen in similar species. They also have larger ears, longer snouts, and longer legs than Erinaceus europaeus. The underbelly is colored either brown or white. The dorsal surface of is covered in sharp spines made of tough keratin. (Amori, et al., 2011; Loyd, 2004; Vriends, 2000)
- Range length
- 200 to 250 mm
- 7.87 to 9.84 in
The breeding season for (Dr. Jungle, 2004)is October to March. They do not mate for life or engage in pair-bonding, but little else is known about mating behavior.
North African hedgehogs produce two litters per breeding season. Litter size is between 3 and 10 hoglets, and each hoglet weighs 12 to 20 grams. The hoglet is born blind, but gains vision quickly. The spines begin to erupt from underneath the skin and membranous coverings about 36 hours after birth. The gestation time for the species is 30 to 40 days and the young become sexually mature between 8 and 10 weeks of age. (Vriends, 2000; Wikipedia, 2012)
- Key Reproductive Features
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- produces two litters per breeding season.
- Breeding season
- Breeding occurs from October to March.
- Range number of offspring
- 3 to 10
- Range gestation period
- 30 to 40 days
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 8 to 10 weeks
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 8 to 10 weeks
Little is known about parental investment in North African hedgehogs. Like other mammals, however, females invest heavily in their offspring through gestation and lactation.
- Parental Investment
- female parental care
This species is difficult to study in the field because it is nocturnal. Like most hedgehogs, it is most likely solitary. When threatened, it curls into a ball and displays its spiny exterior to deter predators. (Amori, et al., 2011; Gage, 2008)
Nothing is known about the size of the home range of (Vriends, 2000).
Communication and Perception
Nothing is known about communication in the wild for (Vriends, 2000). Hedgehogs raise their quills and make hissing noises when worried. In addition, hedgehogs often make purring noises when content. Like other mammals, scent cues are likely to be important in communication and in prey detection.
- Communication Channels
North African hedgehogs are generalist omnivores. They forage at night for arthropods, small vertebrates, carrion, fungi, and other available foods. (Amori, et al., 2011)
- Primary Diet
- Animal Foods
- terrestrial non-insect arthropods
- terrestrial worms
- Plant Foods
- seeds, grains, and nuts
- Other Foods
Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) overlaps in geographic range with and are known to prey on other species of hedgehogs. North African hedgehogs use their sharp spines to deter predators and are also cryptically colored. (Wikipedia, 2012)
- Anti-predator Adaptations
There is little information on the ecosystem roles of North African hedgehogs. They serves as prey for large predators that are able to get beyond their defensive spines and are likely to impact population levels of the species on which they prey.
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
North African hedgehogs often eat pest insects in gardens and populated areas. They are one of two species hybridized to create domesticated hedgehogs. Body parts are sometimes used in local medicinal practices and they are sometimes eaten as food. (Amori, et al., 2011)
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
North African hedgehogs have no known negative impact on humans.
North African hedgehogs are classified as a species of least concern according to the IUCN Red List. Like most hedgehogs in the Mediterranean, (Amori, et al., 2011)is most likely in decline, but not enough is known about their population size to be certain. They are often killed by passing cars and populations are limited by suitable habitat. They are often killed by humans to be used for food, regional medical purposes, and ingredients in witchcraft markets.
is also known as the Algerian hedgehog.
Andrew Everett (author), Yale University, Eric Sargis (editor), Yale University, Rachel Racicot (editor), Yale University, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
uses sound to communicate
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
flesh of dead animals.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
- desert or dunes
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
a substance used for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
- pet trade
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
- scrub forest
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
Amori, G., R. Hutterer, B. Krystufek, N. Yigit, G. Mitsain, L. Muñoz. 2011. "Atelerix algirus" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed April 02, 2012 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/27926/0.
Dr. Jungle, 2004. "African Hedgehog" (On-line). Animal World. Accessed April 29, 2012 at http://animal-world.com/encyclo/critters/hedgehog/hedgehog.php.
Gage, L. 2008. Hedgehogs. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hutterer, R. 2005. Order Erinaceomorpha. Pp. 212-219 in D Wilson, D Reeder, eds. Mammal Species of the World, 3rd Ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Loyd, N. 2004. "Algerian Hedgehog" (On-line). Iberian Nature. Accessed April 29, 2012 at http://www.iberianature.com/material/Algerian_hedgehog.htm.
Nogales, M., J. Rodriguez-Luengo, P. marrero. 2006. Ecological effects and distribution of invasive non-native mammals on the Canary Islands. Mammal Review, 36/1: 49-65. Accessed April 02, 2012 at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2907.2006.00077.x/abstract?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+disrupted+4+June+from+10-12+BST+for+monthly+maintenance.
Stone, R. 1995. Insectivore, Tree Shrew and Elephant Shrew Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. Accessed April 02, 2012 at http://members.vienna.at/shrew/itsesAP95-erinaceidae.html.
Vriends, M. 2000. Hedgehogs. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series. Accessed April 02, 2012 at http://books.google.com/books?id=TpICfb8erlwC&pg=PT80&lpg=PT80&dq=algerian+hedgehog&source=web&ots=Aqt9wqF7_c&sig=ppCNbs-Zn0CriNfx01gTIGFHQeY#v=onepage&q=algerian%20hedgehog&f=false.
Wikipedia, 2012. "Hedgehog" (On-line). Wikipedia. Accessed April 29, 2012 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedgehog.
World Wildlife Fund, , M. Hogan. 2007. Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests. C Cleveland, M McGinley, eds. Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition. Accessed April 04, 2012 at http://www.eoearth.org/article/Mediterranean_conifer_and_mixed_forests?topic=49597.