Brassaricyon gabbii is typically found from Nicaragua to Bolivia, where it is locally abundant and it is sparsely distributed in the western Amazon basin. (Kays, 2000; Nowak, 1999)
Bassaricyon gabbii is found in evergreen forests, and on forest edges. It prefers the upper canopy of the forest and is rarely seen on the ground. Bassaricyon gabbii is found at elevations from sea level to 2,000 m. (Nowak, 1999; Pontes and Chivers, 2002)
Bassaricyon gabbii measures 350 to 470 mm long, with a tail length of 400 to 480 mm. These animals weigh between 970 and 1,500 g. The pelage can range from grey-brown to yellowish. Faint bands are visible on the tail. It has small rounded ears and a flattened head. Both males and females have similar body size. ("Mammals of Iwokrama", 1999; Nowak, 1999)
The breeding system of this species has not been reported. Males are reported to be intollerant of one another in captivity, so it is unlikely that females have multiple mates. (Nowak, 1999)
Breeding in B. gabii is reported to be aseasonal. Gestation lasts approximately 73 to 74 days. At the end of gestation a single offspring is born. Young are altricial, and like most carnivores, are born with their eyes closed. Birth weight is around 55 g. By about 27 days of age, the eyes of the young have opened. Solid food may be consumed as young as 2 months of age. By 21 to 24 months of age, B. gabbii has reached sexual maturity. (Nowak, 1999)
Male parental care has not been reported for these animals. Females, like females of other mammalian species, take care of infants, providing them with milk, grooming, and protection. Young begin to consume solid food by about 2 months of age, and weaning probably occurs shortly thereafter. It is not known how long the young stay with their mothers, but, as with most carnivores, which must learn how to hunt for prey, young B. gabbii probably have some post-weaning association with their mothers. (Nowak, 1999)
Not much is known about longevity in B. gabbii. Captive ones have been recorded living as long as 25 years. The lifespan in the wild is thought to be no more than 10 years. ("Mammals of Iwokrama", 1999; Nowak, 1999)
Bassaricyon gabbii is a nocturnal and arboreal animal. It is usually seen alone, but groups as large as six have been seen feeding together in large fruit trees. BBassaricyon gabbii, known commonly as an olingo, avoids kinkajous (Potos flavus), since the closely related kinkajous will chase them out of trees. Because they are nocturnal, olingos do not compete directly with most primates. (Kays, 2000; Pontes and Chivers, 2002)
The home range size for these animals has not been reported.
It is thought that B. gabbii communicates with conspecifics using sound. Olingos also have glands on either side of the anus that that are used in scent marking. The function of this scent marking may be to attract members of the opposite sex, or to mark territory. Because they are mammals, it is likely that visual signals, such as body posture, are used in some instances. Tactile communication is undoubtedly of importance between rivals, mates, as well as between mothers and offspring. (Kays, 2000; Nowak, 1999)
Bassaricyon gabbii feeds on fruits, nectar, flowers, insects, and small vertebrates. It is primarily a frugivore and prefers to feed in fruit trees. However, it is reported to consume considerably more meat in captivity than Potos flavus, and actively hunts warm-blooded animals. (Nowak, 1999; Kays, 2000; Nowak, 1999; Pontes and Chivers, 2002)
The predators of B. gabbii are snakes and large cats like the jaguar (Panthera onca). Humans are known to kill them, but not for food. ("Mammals of Iwokrama", 1999; Nowak, 1999)
Bassaricyon gabbii is a minor seed disperser. In addition, this species may affect populations of small vertebrates upon which it preys, as well as those of large carnivores which prey upon it. It is a known competitor of Potos flavus, and is probably an indirect competitor with many diurnal primate species which feed on fruits. ("Mammals of Iwokrama", 1999; Kays, 2000; Nowak, 1999; Pontes and Chivers, 2002)
Bassaricyon gabbii is not known to have any direct economic importance to humans. (Nowak, 1999)
Bassaricyon gabbii can eat fruit being grown commercially, but its population is so sparse that it does not constitute a major threat to crops. (Pontes and Chivers, 2002)
Deforestation of B. gabbii habitat is reducing the population, but no exact numbers are known. The species is listed on Appendix III of CITES in Costa Rica. IUCN lists the species as Lower risk. ("IUCN Red list of Threatened species", 2002; Kays, 2000; Pontes and Chivers, 2002)
Five species of the genus Bassaricyon are currently recognized by most authorities. However, some think that these five species should be demoted to the rank of subspecies of a single species. (Nowak, 1999)
Natives of the Amazon consider the olingos dangerous and kill them on sight. (Pontes and Chivers, 2002)
Nancy Shefferly (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Lee Berger (author), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Chris Yahnke (editor, instructor), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
breeding takes place throughout the year
IUCN. 2002. "IUCN Red list of Threatened species" (On-line ). Accessed 11/25/02 at http://www.redlist.org/search/details.php?species=2609.
Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development. 1999. "Mammals of Iwokrama" (On-line). Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development. Accessed May 13, 2004 at http://www.iwokrama.org/mammals/frame.html.
Kays, R. 2000. The behavior and ecology of olingos (Bassaricyon gabbii) and their competition with kinkajous (Potos flavus) in central Panama. Mammalia, 64: 1-10.
Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Pontes, A., D. Chivers. 2002. Abundance, Habitat Use and Conservation of the Olingo Bassaricyon sp. in Maraca Ecological Station, Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 37/2: 105-109.