B. canaliculutus and B. triductylus, has the shortest average tail length. All species in the family Bipedidae exhibit tail autotomy, but they are unable to regenerate their tails. In , tail autotomy occurs between caudal annuli 6 and 10. There is a positive correlation between tail autotomy and body size. Since the larger specimens are usually older, it can be inferred that older specimens are more likely to be tailless than younger specimens. This is due to the higher likelihood of older animals coming into contact with a predator at some point in their lives. (Grismer, 1955; Papenfuss, 1982)can be identified by its small, ossified head, a cylindrical body covered with scales in a pattern of vertical rings (annuli), and two preanal pores. Juveniles are mainly pink in color, turning white as they mature. Mexican Mole Lizards do not exhibit sexual dimorphism, so sexual identity can only be determined by looking at the gonads. The species within the family Bipedidae differ from other Amphisbaenians in that they have forelimbs. All other members of this group are completely legless. The three species of Bipedidae have small, powerful forelimbs that are specialized for burrowing. is the only member of the family with five clawed digits on each forelimb. When compared to the other two species in the family,
In the close relative Bipes canuliculutus, hatchlings (less than 1 year of age), juveniles (greater than one year of age but not yet sexual mature), and adults can easily be distinguished by a size range: those 90 to 130 mm in length are considered hatchlings, 130 to 185 mm are considered juveniles, and greater than 185 mm are considered adults and sexually mature. In , however, hatchlings and juveniles cannot be reliably distinguished from one another by size, so size can only be used for identifying adults (greater than 185 mm long). Due to the burrowing lifestyle of and difficulty in obtaining specimens, information on sex determination is unavailable. (Grismer, 1955; Papenfuss, 1982)
No data has been collected regarding the extent, if any, of parental care performed by.
In terms of locomotion, Bipes may use it more economically, because they seem to move entirely using aerobic respiration. When constructing and extending the underground tunnels, flexes and extends its forelimbs for clearing of the soil and for stabilizing and forward propulsion of its body. (Dial, et al., 1987)exhibits concertina locomotion. This motion, used by many elongate burrowing animals, occurs when one part of the body anchors in one spot while the anterior portion extends forward while pushing against the anchored spot. Then the anchored portion moves forward and the body anchors at a different spot. While this process has been found to be energetically expensive in snakes,
In contrast to the middle ear structure of most amphisbaenians, the stapes and cartilaginous extracolumella of (Wever and Gans, 1972)are connected by fibrous tissue to a deep fold on the skin of the neck, apparently making more efficient at receiving sounds. This structure is likely most effective at intercepting air-borne sounds. The importance of this highly specialized structure is not completely understood for this otherwise rather primitive species. However, this unique ear structure may be important for locating prey above the surface.
Due to its burrowing lifestyle, Bipes. However, all species of Bipes are able to autotomize (drop) their tails as a defense mechanism; it is thought that the autotomized tail may distract the predator or even block the burrow while the Mole Lizard escapes. However, Mole Lizards cannot regenerate the lost tail for future encounters with predators. (Papenfuss, 1982)avoids many reptile-eating predators such as birds. Nocturnal mammals, such as badgers and skunks, that often prey on burrowing animals may be unable to find and dig up because the latter usually burrows deeper at night. The most likely predators of Mexican Mole Lizards are snakes; snakes are easily able to enter the burrow systems constructed by
Due to the large number of insects and other small invertebrates that (Kearney, 2003)feeds on, Mexican Mole Lizards undoubtedly play a role in controlling the populations of their prey. Whether they are ever abundant enough to have a significant economic impact is currently unknown.
Despite their low reproductive potential, Mexican Mole Lizards are considered a relatively stable species, with no immediate concern of endangerment or extinction. These lizards would seem to have at least some ability to adapt to changing environments. If the habitat of (Hollingsworth and Frost, 2007)is disturbed by excavation, they appear to respond largely by digging deeper into the soil or burrowing in a new area. The Mexican Mole Lizard is a secretive species that stays hidden underground most of the time, thus limiting its exposure to predation and negative human interactions. They occur in some protected areas and are considered protected wildlife under Mexican law (catagory Pr).
Morgan Casanova (author), Michigan State University, James Harding (editor), Michigan State University, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
Referring to a burrowing life-style or behavior, specialized for digging or burrowing.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
digs and breaks up soil so air and water can get in
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
Dial, B., R. Gatten, S. Kamel. 1987. Energetics of Concertina Locomotion in Bipes biporus (Reptilia: Amphisbaenia). Copeia, 1987 (2): 470-477. Accessed December 18, 2016 at http://www.jstor.org.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/stable/1445785?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=bipes&searchText=biporus&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3Famp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26wc%3Don%26prq%3Dbipes%2Bbiporus%2Breproduction%26hp%3D25%26fc%3Doff%26Query%3Dbipes%2Bbiporus%2B%26so%3Drel%26acc%3Don&seq=5#page_scan_tab_contents.
Grismer, L. 1955. Amphibians and Reptiles of Baja California, Including Its Pacific Islands and the Islands in the Sea of Cortés. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Accessed December 19, 2016 at https://web-b-ebscohost-com.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/ehost/ebookviewer/ebook/ZTAwMHhuYV9fOTA0NjVfX0FO0?sid=57d8e672-136f-4dba-9fc5-6b9e504d7851@sessionmgr105&vid=0&format=EB&lpid=lp_254&rid=0.
Hollingsworth, B., D. Frost. 2007. "Bipes biporus" (On-line). International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Accessed December 16, 2016 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/63723/0.
Kearney, M. 2003. Diet in the Amphisbaenian Bipes biporus. Journal of Herpetology, 37: (2): 404-408. Accessed December 16, 2016 at http://www.jstor.org.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/stable/pdf/1566161.pdf.
Papenfuss, T. 1982. The Ecology and Systematics of the Amphisbaenian Genus Bipes. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, 136: 1-42. Accessed December 18, 2016 at http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/34858036/Bipes.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1482205672&Signature=%2Bf8f%2BBZbZX5qfZrKmbpCaANDj6k%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DOCCASIONAL_PAPERS_The_Ecology_and_System.pdf.
Slavens, F., K. Slavens. 1999. Reptiles and Amphibians in Captivity: Breeding— Longevity and Inventory Current January 1, 1998. Seattle, Washington: Slaveware.
Wever, E., C. Gans. 1972. The Ear and Hearing in Bipes biporus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 69 (9): 2714-2716. Accessed December 17, 2016 at http://www.jstor.org.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/stable/61851?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=bipes&searchText=biporus&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dbipes%2Bbiporus%2B%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26amp%3D%26acc%3Don%26fc%3Doff%26hp%3D25%26so%3Drel%26wc%3Don%26resultsServiceName%3DdoBackToBasicResults%26prq%3Dbipes%2Bbiporus%2Breproduction&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.