The northern distribution boundary of Capaea nemoralis is found in the western and eastern coasts of both Ireland and the UK, Belgium, and France. The eastward distribution extends to the northwestern areas of Poland. This species was introduced in southeastern Poland, where it currently thrives. was introduced into North America during the nineteenth century and is currently found in Virginia, New York, Ontario, and Massachusetts. (Bellido, et al., 2002; Brussard, 1975; Cain, 1968; Chang and Emlen, 1993; Jordaens, et al., 2006; Ozgo, 2005; Richards and Murray, 1975)is in Scotland and southern Scandinavia. The range extends south to the Iberian Peninsula and Croatia in the south.
Marram grass. Unbanded and yellow are mostly found in open habitats. Colonies with a green background have a high proportion of yellow . Yellow can also be found in shaded areas and banded shells of this species are found in areas of hedgerows and mixed rough herbage. In areas where the type of land is discontinuous, branded are found. In Southeastern Poland, where has been introduced, the species is found in urban environments where it inhabits gardens, orchards, cemeteries, hedgerows and other vegetation made up of herbs. In the hot and dry months of the summer, is also found in tall plants and plants with large leaves or stems. Two of these plants include goldenrod and Centaurea. During hibernation are found underground on land and underwater where they can survive for 2-3 weeks. (Cain, 1968; Cameron, 2001; Chang and Emlen, 1993; Goodhart, 1962; Ozgo, 2005; Richards and Murray, 1975; Sheppard, 1951)is found in habitats ranging from hedgerows to downland turf and from beech woods to sand dunes near the sea. This species is also found throughout grasses and herbs. A relatively small amount is found in
- Terrestrial Biomes
- savanna or grassland
- Other Habitat Features
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range mass
- 0.72 (high) g
- 0.03 (high) oz
- Range basal metabolic rate
- 0.014 to 0.251 cm3.O2/g/hr
- Average basal metabolic rate
- 0.134 cm3.O2/g/hr
In Europe, from 30-80 eggs (2.3-3.0 mm in diameter) are laid and hatch in 15-20 days. High temperatures and low humidity reduce the snail's activity and therefore inhibits growth rate.can form the peristome lip, which indicates it is an adult, in one active season. Juveniles may take to three years to develop into adults.
is hermaphroditic and mates more than once. A mating partner for is random, according to color, size and banding patterns. The snails can store sperm for long periods of time. Each individual may produce offspring from several matings in each brood. The average number of mates per brood is two. Cross fertilization is obligatory.
The offspring of eachis divided into a number of broods that is produced over a period of months or even years. This makes it unlikely that the fates between different broods will mimic each other. Each brood consists of genetic contributions from one female parent and two male parents. This reduces the dependence of single parents for survival within a whole brood unit. This system of multiple mating and sperm storage protects organisms that are minimally mobile from complete fatality within a gene pool.
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
The breeding interval ofruns from April through October. The relative seasons are spring, summer and the beginning of the fall. The number of offspring per brood is around 23. Eggs are laid simultaneously in a dug nest in soil. The snail's foot is used to create a cavity in soil for laying eggs. The laying of the eggs can take up to three days and when complete, its foot is used again to cover the nest.
The average number of hatched young per year is 33. The eggs of one brood may survive or die as a unit; however, once they hatch, the individual's survival is not correlated to the rest of the brood. High temperatures and low humidity reduce the snail's activity and therefore inhibits growth rate and egg production. ("Gastropods", 1989; Chang and Emlen, 1993; Goodfrien, 1983; Goodhart, 1962; Greenwood, 1974; Murray, 1964; Wolda, 1967)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- sequential hermaphrodite
- induced ovulation
- delayed fertilization
- Breeding interval
- This species breeds 1 to 2 times yearly.
- Breeding season
- Breeding season is from April to October.
- Average number of offspring
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 1 to 2 weeks
- Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 1 to 2 weeks
- Range lifespan
- 6 (high) years
- Range lifespan
- Average lifespan
- 2.3 years
- Average lifespan
- Range lifespan
- 10 (high) years
- Range lifespan
- Average lifespan
- 2.3 years
- Average lifespan
has different behaviors throughout different times of the year. In the summer, the species moves to an elevated and shaded part of vegetation during the mornings. The elevation provides with lower temperatures and the shade from vegetation provides protection from the sun's rays. In the spring and fall, does not exhibit this climbing behavior. This is because the climates of the spring and fall are milder than that of the summer. In the spring, there is a high degree of food scarcity which leads to preferring food over shelter. In the fall, however, displays preference for shelter rather than food because of the relative food abundance.
lives amongst each other with a density range of 0.5 to 3.5 adults per square meter. The average density is 1.4 adults per square meter. Populations of any group of range anywhere from 380 to 14,000 total snails. A higher population usually indicates a higher adult density (per square meter).
Communication and Perception
Cepaea and rodents.is able to respond to painful and non-painful stimuli. During the night, feels more pain. Calcium channels are involved in the regulation of neuronal functions in mollusks in a manner like vertebrates. Similar intermediary messenger systems also exist between
Poterium sanguisorba and Leontodon hispidus. Lotus corniculatus and Urtica diocia are examples of rarely consumed greens. avoid vetch, shrub and grass in their diet. Remains of ants, beetles, spiders, mites, springtails and aphids are found in the diet of , but these are probably the remains that were eaten along with greens and herbs.prefers to eat dead plant material rather than fresh. They also prefer to eat herbs rather than grasses. Adult show greater selectivity in their eating habits than the juveniles, although they eat some grasses while juveniles do not. They eat
In a colony that is as dense as 5 adults per square meter, the mean annual biomass consumed is 1.03 g per square meter. A large ("Gastropods", 1989; Chang and Emlen, 1993; Richardson, 1975b; Williamson and Cameron, 1976; Williamson, et al., 1976)can eat 125 mg of food per week, meaning a daily consumption rate of 59.5 mg of food per 1 g of dry tissue weight of the snail. relies on large lumps of food and its hydrolytic enzymes in its gut for nutrition. Vitamins A and B and some sterols are required components of nutrition. Adults require sitosterol, a plant sterol.
- Animal Foods
- Plant Foods
- wood, bark, or stems
Birds, mice, and rats are the most significant predators of song thrushes. Predators feed on snails by cracking the shells on nearby hard objects or with the use of their teeth.. In Europe, the most common predator of is
Anti-predator adaptations of Song Thrushes, a main predator of , preys on shells that are distinguishable from the environment.include the complexity of color and bands on shell varying with the complexity of the landscape, known as background matching. Brown shelled are found in landward parts which are generally complex landscapes. Unbanded shells are found in the most pitted areas. The greatest complexity in the variation of shell colors and whether or not the shells are un/banded correlates with the amount of enclosed spaces such as pits that serve as amphitheaters for other organisms.
- Anti-predator Adaptations
Phorid flies are parasitic on (Goodhart, 1962).
- Ecosystem Impact
- Phorid flies, Phoridae
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
- Positive Impacts
- research and education
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no known adverse affects ofon humans.
Sami Hammoud (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Renee Mulcrone (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
helps break down and decompose dead plants and/or animals
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
used loosely to describe any group of organisms living together or in close proximity to each other - for example nesting shorebirds that live in large colonies. More specifically refers to a group of organisms in which members act as specialized subunits (a continuous, modular society) - as in clonal organisms.
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
- delayed fertilization
a substantial delay (longer than the minimum time required for sperm to travel to the egg) takes place between copulation and fertilization, used to describe female sperm storage.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
an animal that mainly eats leaves.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.
- induced ovulation
ovulation is stimulated by the act of copulation (does not occur spontaneously)
(as keyword in perception channel section) This animal has a special ability to detect heat from other organisms in its environment.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
(as perception channel keyword). This animal has a special ability to detect the Earth's magnetic fields.
- male parental care
parental care is carried out by males
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
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