Cercopithecus group. Sexual dimorphism is evident, with males exhibiting a greater length and body mass than females. They are diurnal and, like all guenons, possess trichromatic vision. Greater spot-nosed monkeys are primarily arboreal, but also move through the forest quadrupedally. Grubb et al. (2003) recognized two subspecies, C. nictitans nictitans and C. nictitans martini, based on geographic range. Cercopithecus nictitans nictitans occupies the eastern section of the range, from Cameroon to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Cercopithecus nictitans martini is thought to represent the western populations of several distinct subspecies, such as one on the island of Bioko. (Cardini and Elton, 2008; Flannery, 2007; Grubb, et al., 2003; Kingdon, 1988; Kingdon, 1997; Oates and Groves, 2011; Rollinson and Martin, 1981; Sumner and Mollon, 2000), also known as white-nosed guenons, greater spot-nosed monkeys, greater white-nosed monkeys, or putty-nosed monkeys, is most easily recognized by a distinctive white spot covering the nose. Their fur is dark, ranging in color from olive to black, and sometimes have a white patch on the breast. They have cheek pouches in which to store food while foraging. Individuals weigh, on average, between 4.2 and 6.6 kilograms, making them one of the largest of the
- Sexual Dimorphism
- male larger
- Range mass
- 4.2 to 6.6 kg
- 9.25 to 14.54 lb
Greater spot-nosed monkeys have a polygynous mating system, in which one resident adult male resides with several adult females and their offspring. The lone male has exclusive breeding access to all of the females. Male tenures of 5 years are common. Females solicit copulation by presenting their estrous swellings to males. During copulation, the females look over their shoulders and pout, with the lower lip pushed forward and down. Greater spot-nosed monkeys exhibit female philopatry, in which males disperse from natal groups upon adolescence and females stay in their natal range. (Cords, 1987; Estes, 1991; Nowak, 1999; Zuberbuehler, 2002)
- Mating System
Females reach maturity around 4 years of age. Once pregnant, they gestate for 172 days on average. They give birth to one offspring approximately every two years. There is little information available on the reproductive cycle, breeding season, and parental investment of greater spot-nosed monkeys. However, it is assumed that, like other Cercopithecus species, the young are relatively well-developed at birth and that mothers will invest in their own offspring for approximately six months. (de Magalhaes and Costa, 2009)
- Key Reproductive Features
- year-round breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Greater spot-nosed monkeys breed once every two years.
- Breeding season
- Breeding season is unknown, but it is probably year-round, as in Cercopithecus mitis.
- Average number of offspring
- Average gestation period
- 172 days
- Average time to independence
- 4 years
There is little information regarding the level of parental investment in, although females certainly invest heavily in offspring through gestation, lactation, and juvenile protection.
- Range lifespan
- 31 (high) years
- Range lifespan
Greater spot-nosed monkeys are generally social, found in groups of between 12 and 30 animals. There is evidence of intra-group competition for alpha male status. They are primarily active in the middle tree canopy, and frequently exhibit acrobatic movements such as leaping and darting. Their habitat overlaps with that of Diana monkeys, Cercopithecus diana. It is thought that the two species form mixed-species groups for the purpose of predation defense and shared foraging opportunities. (Arnold and Zuberbuehler, 2008; Boinski and Garber, 2000; Eckardt and Zuberbuehler, 2004; Manaster, 1979; Oates and Groves, 2011)
Communication and Perception
Auditory, olfactory, visual, and tactile senses are complex, as in most primates. Greater spot-nosed monkeys are especially known for their wide range of vocalizations, which vary from deep booms to chirps, depending on context. Males perform loud, low-frequency boom calls to communicate territoriality and as a predator alarm call. Females and subadults often use short chirps to attract the attention of the group. Loud isolation calls are emitted both by infants and members of the group that have become separated from the troop. Olfactory communication includes mutual genital sniffing and muzzle sniffing, both of which are performed by males. Visual signals include staring, which is often accompanied by head-bobbing in order to indicate a threat display among males. Grimacing or yawning with the canines exposed is an expression of tension or a threat display. (Estes, 1991; Flannery, 2007; Gautier and Gautier, 1977; Zuberbuehler, 2002)
Greater spot-nosed monkeys are primarily frugivorous and granivorous. Like most Old World Monkeys, they have cheek pouches in which to store seeds while foraging. They supplement their diets of fruits and seeds with leaves and insects, and occasionally agricultural crops. (Chapman, et al., 2002; Flannery, 2007; Jeffery, et al., 2009; Macdonald, 2001)
- Animal Foods
- Plant Foods
- seeds, grains, and nuts
- Anti-predator Adaptations
Like many other frugivorous Old World monkeys, Cercopithecus diana for mutual predator defense and increased foraging opportunities. Humans (Homo sapiens) hunt them for bushmeat, and also to prevent the greater spot-nosed monkeys from destroying their crops. Greater spot-nosed monkeys carry a variety of parasites, including a primate-specific strain of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum). (Boinski and Garber, 2000; Eckardt and Zuberbuehler, 2004; Oates and Groves, 2011; Pourrut, et al., 2011; Prugnolle, et al., 2011)likely plays a large role in seed dispersal, as they often ingest fruits and seeds away from the parent site. has been reported to live in mixed-species groups with
- Ecosystem Impact
- disperses seeds
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
- Positive Impacts
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Greater spot-nosed monkeys, like other guenons, have been reported to feed on agricultural crops. (Oates and Groves, 2011)
- Negative Impacts
- crop pest
Greater spot-nosed monkeys are threatened by habitat loss through deforestation and by hunting for meat, especially in the western portion of its range. On the island of Bioko, populations of C. nictitans martini have undergone steep declines, exceeding 50% during the period of 1986 to 2006.
Populations are known to occur in several protected national parks in Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. They are listed on Appendix II of CITES and on Class B of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Cercopithecus nictitans nictitans is currently listed as Least Concern by the IUCN due to its widespread range and relatively slow rate of population decline. Cercopithecus nictitans martini is classified as vulnerable due to restricted habitat range, ongoing habitat loss, and hunting pressure. (Hearn, et al., 2006; Oates and Groves, 2011)
The taxonomy of Cercopithecus diana within the Cercopithecus mitis species group, which includes , Cercopithecus albogularis, and Cercopithecus mitis. The inclusion of within the Cercopithecus mitis species group was confirmed by a recent molecular analysis (Tosi et al., 2005), which supports Cercopithecus albogularis as the sister taxon of . (Cardini and Elton, 2008; Grubb, et al., 2003; Oates and Groves, 2011; Tosi, et al., 2005)is contentious. Grubb et al. (2003) list two subspecies, the geographically widespread C. nictitans nictitans and the more restricted C. nictitans martini, but an isolated population of the latter is thought to represent a distinct and possibly threatened subspecies. A recent morphometric analysis (Cardini & Elton, 2008) misclassified
is colloquially known as the “cowardly monkey” because of its high frequency and range of alarm calls.
Alexandra Neinast (author), Yale University, Eric Sargis (editor), Yale University, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
uses sound to communicate
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
an animal that mainly eats seeds
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
having more than one female as a mate at one time
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
- year-round breeding
breeding takes place throughout the year
- young precocial
young are relatively well-developed when born
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