Some authors have speculated that Cercopithecus erythrotis, which occurs on the eastern side of the Cross river in Nigeria and Cameroon, and Cercopithecus erythrogaster which occurs on the western side of the Niger delta in Nigeria. Several authors, however, agree that deserves full specific status. (Hill, 1953; Kingdon, 1980; Nowak, 1999)may be a hybrid between
Cercopithecus (cephus) superspecies group. Members of this group occur in primary rainforest like most of the other species of guenons, but also occur in secondary forests more often than other guenon species. In addition, the closely related species in this group seem to prefer the lower levels of the canopy and sometimes come to the ground. (Fleagle, 1999; Nowak, 1999)is a member of the
Sclater's guenon, like all guenons, is a very colorful monkey with a complicated facial pattern. The body is overall a dusky gray color with some greenish tinge on the back. The tail is very long (about one-half the total length) and is reddish colored on the ventral proximal part, gradually becoming white distally and ending in a black tip. The muzzle is brownish pink with a creamy white nose spot (above the nostrils on the bridge of the nose). The face is adorned with three major hair patches. The crown and cheek patches are yellow mixed with black. In addition, there is a large white throat patch extending almost to the ears. The ears have prominent white tufts. Finally, black temporal bars extend past the ears and meet at the back of the head. (Hill, 1953; Kingdon, 1980; Nowak, 1999; Oates, et al., 1992)
There is little information available on reproduction in C. (cephus) group, including probably practice opportunism with respect to copulation with females rather than guarding groups of females as do other members of the genus. Males signal to females prior to mounting them. They do this with head weaving movements which have been hypothesized to be an important courtship ritual used to reassure females with whom a male wants to mate. In addition, these head weaving movements may have contributed to the radiation of the complex facial patterns of and other species in the C. (cephus) group. (Fleagle, 1999; Kingdon, 1980). However, members of the genus are typically polygynous, and it is reasonable to assume that is as well. The mating system of their superspecies group differs from other guenons in the decreased importance of single male groups. Instead, females seem to make up the core group and they often travel together without a male. Female independence seems to be very important, as females defend territories from other groups. Males in the
Generally, within the genus Cercopithecus, mating season corresponds to the time of highest food availability. For many species this occurs in July, August, and September, however, rainforest species, potentially including , exhibit more flexibility in this regard. Gestation is around 6 months with birth occurring during the months of December, January, or February. Young weigh approximately 400 g at birth, and cling to the mother's ventrum. The period of nursing is not known for this species, but like most Cercopithecines, it is probably complete by about 9 months of age. Females produce their first young at about 5 to 6 years of age. (Fleagle, 1999; Nowak, 1999; Oates, et al., 1992)
Little is known about parental investment in (Nowak, 1999). The species is poorly studied, but probably resembles other Cercopithecine monkeys. A young guenon rides on its mother's ventrum, clinging to her fur and entwining its tail with hers. As in most Cercopithecines, parental care is probably provided primarily by the mother. She nurses, carries, and grooms her offspring. Infants are generally dependent upon their mother for all forms of care. Cercopithecine young typically remain with their mother for some time after weaning. It is not uncommmon for rank of mothers to affect the dominance standing of their offspring. The role of males in the parental care of this species has not been reported.
There are no behavioral studies of C. (cephus), group structure is less strict than in other members of Cercopithecus. Specifically, C. (cephus) does not have a single dominant male; rather, groups can be multi-male, composed of family members, or all female. (Kingdon, 1980)in the wild. However, in the members of the superspecies
Locomotion in the genus Cercopithecus is also poorly studied. Most guenons are quadrupedal and leap 10 percent of the time. It is known that their positional behavior is related to diet. For instance, climbing is negatively correlated to fruit in the diet. Species that eat larger numbers of insects use more transitional postures than other species. Guenons use their tails for balance and usually sleep in trees. (McGraw, 2002; Nowak, 1999)
Perodicticus potto, Arctocebus calabarensis, Cercocebus torquatus, Cercopithecus mona, and Cercopithecus nicticans. The closely related Cercopithecus cephus forms associations with C. nicticans in Gabon where they partition resources based on food type and preferred canopy feeding level. Since the C. (cephus) subgroup is thought to fill the same ecological niche, it is probable that forms such associations with other primates in its range. (Fleagle, 1999; Tooze, 1995)is sympatric with several other species of primates including
Cercopithecus (cephus), has a striking facial pattern that is hypothesized to be used in communication relating to reproduction. Specifically, the cheek patches and nose may be important in signalling. This pattern, in conjunction with very fast and complex head weaving, may serve important roles in maintaining relationships with other members of a group. Sexual selection may play a role in the evolution of facial pattern in this species. The highly colored tail is probably also used to communicate with conspecifics. (Kingdon, 1980), like the other members of its superspecies group
Tactile communication is important in all primates. Grooming behaviors typically indicate close relationships between individuals. Mothers communicate with their young through touching, as do mates. Physical aggression often occurs, especially between rival males. (Nowak, 1999)
Cercopithicus sclateri is known to raid gardens and farms for food. Some villagers consider it a nuisance. (Oates, et al., 1992)
Sclater's guenons are one of the most endangered primates in Africa. The combination of an extremely small range in a very populous part of Nigeria have pushed this species to the brink of extinction. The area of Nigeria in which these guenons are found has one of the densest rural populations in all of Africa. The vast majority of the land area has been converted to agricultural use and non-native plantations. Two populations of Sclater's guenons are known to occur in forest reserves, although these reserves provide little protection. A conservation project was started in the Stubbs Creek Forest Preserve in Akwa Ibom State, although it has largely failed to produce results. (Butynski, 2002b; Nowak, 1999; Oates and Anadu, 1989; Oates, et al., 1992; Oates, 1996)
Nancy Shefferly (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Jason Law (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor, instructor), Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
active at dawn and dusk
humans benefit economically by promoting tourism that focuses on the appreciation of natural areas or animals. Ecotourism implies that there are existing programs that profit from the appreciation of natural areas or animals.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
having more than one female as a mate at one time
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
Baker, L., Z. Tooze. 2003. Status of the Sclater's Guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) in southeastern Nigeria. American Journal of Primatology, 60(Suppl 1): 88-89.
Butynski, T. 2002. Conservation of the guenons: An overview of status, threats, and recommendations. Pp. 411-415 in Glenn, Cords, eds. The guenons: Diversity and adaptation in African Monkeys. New York: Kluwer Academic.
Butynski, T. 2002. The guenons: An overview of diversity and taxonomy. Pp. 3-13 in Glenn, Cords, eds. The guenons: Diversity and adaptation in African Monkeys. New York: Kluwer Academic.
Fleagle, J. 1999. Primate adaptation and evolution. New York: Academic Press.
Groves, C. 2000. The phylogeny of the Cercopithecoidea. Pp. 92-95 in P Whitehead, C Jolly, eds. Old World Monkeys. London: Cambridge University Press.
Hill, W. 1953. Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy VI, Catarrhini, Cercopithecoidea. New York: Interscience.
Johnson, D. 2002. "Life spans of non-human primates" (On-line). Primate Info Net. Accessed August 25, 2004 at http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/aboutp/phys/lifespan.html.
Kingdon, J. 1980. The role of visual signals and face patterns in African forest monkeys (guenons) of the genus Cercopithecus. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 35: 425-475.
McGraw, W. 2002. Diversity of guenon positional behavior. Pp. 125 in Glenn, Cords, eds. The guenons: Diversity and adaptation in African Monkeys. New York: Kluwer Academic.
Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Oates, J. 1996. African Primates: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Oates, J., P. Anadu. 1989. Folia Primatologica, 52(1-2): 38-42.
Oates, J., P. Anadu. 1987. Sclater's guenon: First field observation [Abstract]. International Journal of Primatology, 8(5): 555.
Oates, J., P. Anadu, E. Gadsby, J. Werre. 1992. Sclater's guenon: A rare Nigerian monkey threatened by deforestation. National Geographic Research and Exploration, 8(4): 476-491.
Stewart, C. 1996. Africa's Vanishing Wildlife. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Tooze, Z. 1995. Update on Sclater's guenon, Cercopithecus sclateri, in southern Nigeria. African Primates, 1(2): 38-42.