Like all camel crickets, Ceuthophilus lapidicola, but has more robust caudal femora, and the supra-anal plate differs between the species. nymphs have the same markings as adults, but are smaller in size. Eggs are 2.3 mm in length, oval shaped, semi-translucent and soft at first, but later the shell hardens and becomes white. (Lavoie, et al., 2007; Rehn and Hebard, 1916; Scudder, 1894; Turner, 1915; Woodward, 1911)has an arched back, long legs, long antennae, and lacks wings. This species exhibits slight sexual dimorphism, with females usually a few millimeters longer in length. Males have an average body length of 14.5 mm, while females have an average body length of 16 mm. Antennae are three times as long as the body, ranging from 44 to 52 mm in length. The body is a light yellowish-brown or beige color, while some individuals are a darker orange-brown. On each side of a broad pale dorsal line on its back is a dark brown band. The legs are the same beige color as the body, with dark brown spots usually arranged in rows. The hind femora are significantly longer than the body. One distinguishing feature of this species is the spines on the hind tibia, which are black at the base. resembles
- Sexual Dimorphism
- female larger
- Range length
- 14.5 to 16 mm
- 0.57 to 0.63 in
Rhaphidophoridae species, eggs are laid underground and hatch after several days or weeks. Nymphs that resemble adults emerge from the soil and develop into sexually mature adults. (Lavoie, et al., 2007)is hemimetabolous. There is little information about development that is specific to , but as in other
- Development - Life Cycle
Mating takes place at night. (Turner, 1915)males and females find each other only through random movements. Individuals do not seem to notice other crickets until they come into direct contact. If the antennae of two potential mates touch, the individuals will briefly “fence” and hit their antennae together. Males can identify females once a part of the female body comes into contact with the male antennae or palps. To initiate mating, a male backs toward a female and put his cerci underneath her abdomen. He clasps and unclasps his cerci, apparently trying to lift her abdomen above the ground. If the female does not immediately lift her abdomen, the male will crawl all over her body, feeling with his antennae, mouthparts, and cerci. He also vibrates his antennae. Females do not play an active role in courtship; they either mate or walk away. If a female walks out of reach of the male’s antennae, he will stop pursuing her. If the female wishes to mate, she lifts her abdomen and the male inverts his posterior end and clasps the posterior end of the female. Copulation lasts 2 to 12 minutes, during which both males and females remain relatively inactive. The male passes spermatozoa to the female. Mating pairs often have been observed mating a second time within a few seconds to a few minutes later. Mating also occurs between periods of oviposition.
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
To oviposit, females bury the posterior end of their abdomen in the ground to lay their eggs beneath the soil or sand. Females lay 2 to 5 eggs at each oviposition site, and may lay eggs at several sites, though the total number of eggs laid remains unknown. It is estimated that one female can lay up to 30 eggs, which are scattered in groups at different locations. Females die several days after their final oviposition. (Lavoie, et al., 2007; Turner, 1915)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Black-sided camel crickets can breed repeatedly after reaching sexual maturity.
- Breeding season
- Breeding occurs in the late summer.
- Range eggs per season
- 2 to 30
- Parental Investment
- Typical lifespan
- 2 to 3 months
- Typical lifespan
Orthoptera. actively avoids light by staying under stones and logs, and will seek cover quickly when exposed to light. To do so, crawls quickly or jumps several feet. In addition to adult females cannibalizing male mates, also cannibalizes its nymphs. Females have been observed eating nymphs and mates even in the presence of other food sources. Like all members of Rhaphidophoridae, is wingless and cannot fly. Some Rhaphidophoridae species gather in large groups in houses and other buildings; it is possible that occasionally assembles in large groups, though it is likely that, most of the time, is either solitary or lives in small groups. (Lavoie, et al., 2007; Scudder, 1894; Turner, 1915; Zungoli and Benson, 1999)is nocturnal. It is rarely active during the day, but even at night, these crickets remain quite inactive relative to other
Communication and Perception
For Orthoptera, has no special organ for producing or receiving sound, suggesting that sound does not play a role in attracting mates or other forms of communication. is also sensitive to air currents. (Lavoie, et al., 2007; Turner, 1915), antennae and palps seem to be the primary sensory organs and the primary means of communication between individuals. While looking for mates, males and females interact only if their antennae or other body parts come into contact. If a female does not immediately respond to his mating attempt, a male uses his palps and mouthparts to feel along her body parts. He also vibrates his antennae. If a female moves out of reach of the male antennae during mating, the male will stop pursuing the female. also finds food using its antennae and palps, likely through a combination of olfaction and physical contact. does not seem to have strong eyesight; nonetheless, is sensitive to light. Studies have shown that moves away from a light that shines in its eyes, but not if the light shines on any other part of its body. Though its eyes are well developed, does not rely on them, and the crickets do not acknowledge each other unless they come into physical contact. Unlike many
Although little information is available about the diet of camel crickets generally are known to be scavengers of organic material. Camel crickets consume organic matter that is decaying, such as mushrooms, dead insects, fruits, and flowers. females also have been known to cannibalize male mates and nymphs, even when other food sources are available. (Lavoie, et al., 2007; Turner, 1915)specifically,
- Primary Diet
- Animal Foods
- Plant Foods
- Other Foods
While little information specific to camel crickets. Bird species that live in deciduous forests in the eastern part of the United States likely prey on . Rodents, salamanders, arthropods such as spiders, and freshwater fish prey on other Ceuthophilus species, and these animals probably prey on , as well. Like all camel crickets, can jump several feet to escape from predators. (Bakkegard, 2007; Cochran, 2007; Kleintjes and Dahlsten, 1994; Lavoie, et al., 2007; Turner, 1915)is available regarding predation, many birds are known to prey on other species of
birds, rodents, spiders, salamanders, and fish. also can serve as a host to Gregarina longiducta, a parasitic protozoa. The parasite is found in the intestines and occasionally the alimentary canal of black-sided camel crickets. Cysts of the protozoa are transmitted in feces. Because camel crickets mainly eat organic matter and part of their diet consists of decaying matter, likely plays a small role in biodegradation. (Bakkegard, 2007; Cochran, 2007; Ellis, 1913; Kleintjes and Dahlsten, 1994; Lavoie, et al., 2007)is prey to many animal species, such as
- Ecosystem Impact
- parasitic protozoa: Gregarina longiducta
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
There are no known positive effects ofon humans.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Many species of camel crickets can be household pests, assembling in large numbers in damp areas such as basements or crawl spaces. They can cause damage to houseplants and fabrics. While no reports mention in the context of infestations, it is possible that could be a household pest in some cases. (Zungoli and Benson, 1999)
- Negative Impacts
- household pest
has no special conservation status.
Angela Miner (author), Animal Diversity Web Staff, Elizabeth Wason (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff, Leila Siciliano Martina (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
helps break down and decompose dead plants and/or animals
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
- desert or dunes
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
an animal that mainly eats decomposed plants and/or animals
particles of organic material from dead and decomposing organisms. Detritus is the result of the activity of decomposers (organisms that decompose organic material).
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
specialized for leaping or bounding locomotion; jumps or hops.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
Bakkegard, K. 2007. Interactions between the Red Hills salamander and its potential invertebrate prey. Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, 78/1: 1-12.
Ellis, M. 1913. Gregarines from some Michigan Orthoptera. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 43: 78-84.
Kleintjes, P., D. Dahlsten. 1994. Foraging Behavior and Nestling Diet of Chestnut-Backed Chickadees in Monterey Pine. The Condor, 96/3: 647-653.
Lavoie, K., K. Helf, T. Poulson. 2007. The Biology and Ecology of North American Cave Crickets. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 69/1: 114-134. Accessed June 10, 2013 at http://www.caves.org/pub/journal/PDF/v69/cave-69-01-114.pdf.
Morse, A. 1919. A list of the Orthoptera of New England. Psyche, 26: 21-38.
Rehn, J., M. Hebard. 1916. Studies in the Dermaptera and Orthoptera of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Region of the Southeastern United States. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 68/2: 87-316. Accessed June 10, 2013 at http://www.jstor.org/stable/4063692.
Strohecker, H. 1937. An ecological study of some Orthoptera of the Chicago area. Ecological Society of America, 18/2: 231-250.
Turner, C. 1915. Breeding habits of Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History Society, 13: 32-41., the camel cricket.
Woodward, A. 1911. The Orthoptera collected at Douglas Lake, Michigan, in 1910. Michigan Academy of Science, 13: 146-167.
Zungoli, P., E. Benson. 1999. "Camel Crickets" (On-line). Clemson University. Accessed May 29, 2013 at http://www.clemson.edu/cafls/departments/esps/factsheets/household_structural/camel_crickets_hs21.html.