This species occurs near shore, from the intertidal zone to 40m depth. It was normally found under rocks, crawling or anchored by byssal threads. Sometimes it can also be found within kelp holdfasts. (Carlton, 1979; Coan, et al., 2000)
The mantle is greatly thickened and fused, forming an “envelope” that encloses the shells. The anterior mantle opening acts as the inhalant pathway for the animal and a posterior siphon forms the exhalent opening. The dorsal-lateral surface of the mantle exhibits many white papillae that are retractable into pits. The papillae have various spherical inclusions that act as secretory tubules. Those papillae may have a chemical defense function protecting the animal from its predators. A group of unique papillae also exists behind the anterior mantle opening, forming an anemone-like disc structure known as the pheromone organ. (Morton, 1981; Rouse, 2011)
The fertilized eggs are brooded in mantle cavities of females, then released as veliger larvae. No detailed studies have been done on the development of this species. However, studies on species from the same superfamily show that early cleavage to larval release may take 12-29 days, or even up to 2 months. The veligers feed on the plankton and metamorphosis into juveniles. (Jespersen and Lützen, 2006)
Dwarf males or hermaphroditic large adults release spermatozoa that are taken up by the incurrent siphon of the egg-producing partner. The eggs are fertilized and incubated in the suprabranchial chamber of the female/hermaphrodite. (Morton, 1981)
Specific predators of (Morton, 1981)are not identified, but it could be potentially be predated by a spectrum of benthic predators if they can have access to it. normally hides under rocks; papillae on the mantle of the clam are likely to be chemical defensive organs that protect the animal from its predators.
Very little is known about the ecology of this species, or its ecological relationships with other species.
There are no known positive effects ofon humans.
There are no known adverse effects ofon humans.
Very little is known about the population status of this species. It does not receive any special legal protection.
Jingchun Li (author), Special Projects, George Hammond (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. This is the world's largest ocean, covering about 28% of the world's surface.
Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. see also oceanic vent.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
particles of organic material from dead and decomposing organisms. Detritus is the result of the activity of decomposers (organisms that decompose organic material).
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
a method of feeding where small food particles are filtered from the surrounding water by various mechanisms. Used mainly by aquatic invertebrates, especially plankton, but also by baleen whales.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs develop within the maternal body without additional nourishment from the parent and hatch within the parent or immediately after laying.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
an animal that mainly eats plankton
condition of hermaphroditic animals (and plants) in which the male organs and their products appear before the female organs and their products
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
Bernard, F. 1897. Note préliminaire sur Bulletin du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, 3: 65-67.Dall, Lamellibranche à coquille interne.
Carlton, J. 1979. Veliger, 21: 375-378.Dall: review and distribution of a little-known bivalve.
Coan, E., P. Valentich-Scott, F. Bernard. 2000. Bivalve Seashells of Western North America. Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Musuem.
Jespersen, Å., J. Lützen. 2006. Reproduction and sperm structure in Galeommatidae (Bivalvia, Galeommatoidea). Zoomorphology, 125: 157-173.
Morton, B. 1981. The biology and functional morphology of Journal of Zoology, London, 195: 81–121.with a discussion on the taxonomic status of the Chlamydoconchacea (Mollusca: Bivalvia).
Rouse, G. 2011. "Chlamydoconcha" (On-line). Accessed August 19, 2011 at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kr7m_OSzwV8.
Ó Foighil, D. 1985. Form, function and origin of temporary dwarf males in Pseudopythina rugifera (Carpenter, 1864) (Bivalvia: Galeommatacea). Veliger, 27: 245–252.