The mugger is found primarily on the Indian subcontinent and extends into Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
This species is not only found in freshwater lakes, ponds, and marshes, but it has adapted well to reserviors, irrigation canals, human-made ponds, and even recently in coastal saltwater lagoons. The mugger likes relatively shallow water, no deeper than 5m, and avoids fast-flowing rivers. The mugger is also known to bury itself into mud to escape the searing heat of India during the dry season.
- Aquatic Biomes
- lakes and ponds
- rivers and streams
Muggers are medium to large crocodiles, reaching 4 to 5 meters in length. Like all crocodiles, they have an elongate, robust skull and jaw musculature. They have the broadest snout of any living member of Crocodylus.
- Average length
- 4-5 m
This species of crocodile is a hole-nesting species. Once the female finds a suitable site to dig her nesting hole, it is usually utilized for most or all of her breeding years. Approximately one month after mating occurs, the eggs are deposited by the female into the nesting hole she has formed. This takes place in February-April and consists of an average 28 (10-48 range) eggs per clutch. The mugger has been known to lay two clutches in one year while being kept in captivity, but little is known about the individuals in the wild. The incubation period is relatively short, 55-75 days. When the eggs finally hatch, they are transported by the mother and sometimes even the father to nearby water. Young crocodiles remain in loosely organized groups with the adults for up to one year before dispersing.
Females reach sexual maturity at about 6 years old, from 1.7 to 2 meters in length. Males reach sexual maturity at around 10 years old, when they have reached lengths of 2.6 meters.
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Muggers breed once each year.
- Breeding season
- Breeding occurs from February to April.
- Range number of offspring
- 10 to 48
- Average number of offspring
- Range gestation period
- 55 to 75 days
Adult muggers are long lived (20-40+ years), and have a longer than average reproductive length as well (10-30+ years).
- Typical lifespan
- 20 to 40 years
- Typical lifespan
- Average lifespan
- 28.4 years
- Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
- Average lifespan
All crocodiles, including the mugger, are highly social. This social behavior includes communication, gregarious behavior, dominance interactions, and territorial activities. There is a great deal of vocalization between adults and adults and their young. The majority of socializing occurs during the seasonal reproductive activities. Body postures such as tail thrashing and snout lifting occur while the males are trying to establish territories and gain dominance prior to courtship and mating.
- Key Behaviors
The mugger is mostly carnivorous with a diet consisting mainly of fish, frogs, crustaceans, birds, mammals, and occasionally various monkeys and squirrels.
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
is known to have close associations with Indian culture as a religious symbol and for use in indigenous medicines. Sport hunting of crocodiles was once very popular, as well as hunting crocodiles for their skin, a material that is widely used in shoes, handbags, and other luxuries.
In the past (1950s-1960s), the main source of threat towas illegal skin trading. Now, the current threats have changed to individuals drowning in fishing nets, egg predation by people, and habitiat destruction. There has been considerable progress with the management of crocodiles in India. The management of the mugger is based principally on the legal protection of wild populations and large scale captive rearing programs.
Mugger is derived from Hindi, while the alternative name: marsh crocodile stems from its scientific name, with palustris translating as 'of the marshes'. In Northern India the mugger is such a social crocodile that it is often found to be sympatric with another type of crocodile, Gavialis gangeticus.
Stephanie Lammy (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
Alderton, David. 1991. Crocodiles and Alligators of the World. Facts on File, New York.
Crocodile Specialist Group Working Meeting.1984. Crocodiles. IUNC, Caracas, Venezuela.
Webb, J.W. Grahame, Manolis, S. Charlie, and Whitehead, J. Peter. 1987. Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Limited, Australia.
Thorbjarnarson, John. 1992. Crocodiles-An Action Plan for Their Conservation. IUNC, Gland, Switzerland.