have white, elongate eggs that darken and harden over the hours following oviposition. Larvae are divided into three segments: the head, the thorax and the abdomen. The abdomen itself is divided into ten segments, the last three of which form the siphon used for breathing. The aquatic pupa has a fused head and thorax, this forming the cephalothorax. as adults have a body design that is also separated into three regions. The head bears the antennae, eyes, palpi and proboscis.
Males and females are dimorphic. Their differences reside in their antennae and palpi. Males have longer proboscises and antennae covered with more hair than females. (Miller and Nasci, 1996)
The time it takes for the egg to hatch, larvae to mature, and the adult to eclose from the pupa, is very dependent upon the ambient temperature. Both larvae and pupae are aquatic, but pupae do not feed. They are found respiring at the water surface of their habitats. When the mosquito is ready to emerge from the pupa, the dorsal skin on the cephalothorax splits, allowing the adult to exit. (Burbutis and Lake, 1956; Mahmood and Crans, 1998a; Mahmood and Crans, 1998b; Service, 2000)
Females lay eggs in a place suitable for larval development, after which there is no further parental involvement.
Adults live from several days to several months depending on numerous abiotic conditions.
Mosquito larvae are an important food source for a variety of aquatic organisms including fish and other insect larvae. Fish, insects, spiders, bats, frogs, and birds also prey upon the adults. (Burbutis and Lake, 1956; Mahmood and Crans, 1998b)
There is no obvious economic benefit derived from this species.
This species is in no danger of extinction.
Sara Diamond (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Jacob Nelson (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Barry OConnor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
a wetland area rich in accumulated plant material and with acidic soils surrounding a body of open water. Bogs have a flora dominated by sedges, heaths, and sphagnum.
areas with salty water, usually in coastal marshes and estuaries.
an animal that mainly eats meat
an animal which directly causes disease in humans. For example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes (elephantiasis and river blindness).
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
active at dawn and dusk
particles of organic material from dead and decomposing organisms. Detritus is the result of the activity of decomposers (organisms that decompose organic material).
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
an animal that mainly eats blood
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
Burbutis, P., R. Lake. 1956. The Biology of Culiseta melanura (Coq.) in New Jersey. Proc. N. J. Mosq. Exterm. Assoc., 43: 155-161.
Burgess, N. 1990. Public Health Pests. NY: Chapman and Hall.
Busvine, J. 1993. Disease Transmission by Insects. NY: Springer-Verlag.
Horsfall, W. 1955. Mosquitoes: Their Bionomics and Relation to Disease. NY: The Ronald Press Company.
Mahmood, F., W. Crans. 1998. Ovarian Developement and Parity Determination in Culiseta melanura. J. Med. Entomol., 35(6): 980-988.
Mahmood, F., W. Crans. 1998. Effect of temperature on the development of Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and its impact on the amplification of Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus in birds. J. Med. Entomol, 35(6): 1007-1012.
Miller, B., R. Nasci. 1996. Culicine Mosquitoes and the Agent They Transmit. Pp. 85-97 in B Beaty, W Marquardt, eds. The Biology of Disease Vectors. Colorado: University Press of Colorado.
Service, M. 2000. Medical Entomology for Students. 2nd ed.. NY: Cambridge University Press.