The distribution of (Deacon and Deacon Williams, 1991)is restricted solely to a relatively small, isolated limestone shelf in the Devil's Hole Pool in what was previously Nye County, Nevada, in the southwestern United States. In 1952 the Devil's Hole Pool was incorporated into the Death Valley National Monument in California.
Cyprinodon. Observations revealed the mean male reproductive success was 0.6 spawning per male per hour, while the maximum was 1.5 spawning per male per hour. uses the limestone bedrock as well as the algae that grows on it as a substrate for spawning. It reaches reproductive age at between 8 at 10 weeks. It takes 7 days for the eggs to hatch, and the average length of a fry is 6.5 mm. Although territorial behavior is not normally observed, males will exhibit this behavior during times when population size and food supplies are lower. This occurs during the winter months, when sunlight exposure is minimal. (Naiman and Soltz, 1981; Soltz, 1979; Strecker and Kodric Brown, 1999)can breed year round, but breeding is most intense from April to May. The fact that they can continuously breed is attributed to the constancy of the temperature of their habitat, which remains between 33.4 and 34.0 degrees C. Because of the small population of Devil’s Hole pupfish, spawning levels are higher than those in other species of
The lifespan of C. diabolis is between 6 and 12 months. (Deacon, et al., 1980)
Although specific information on perception in Cyprinodon was found. Females of C. maya were able to recognize members of the opposite sex from both chemical and visual cues, while other members of Cyprinodon use either only chemical or only visual cues. (Strecker and Kodric Brown, 1999)could not be found, information regarding other members of
Devils Hole pupfish feed primarily on algae that grows on the limestone shelf in Devils Hole. Diatoms are the major food source in the winter and spring, while Spirogyra serve as the food source in the summer and fall. Tryonia (a small snail), a tubularian and Dugesia have also been found in the guts of small numbers of . spends most of the time feeding on the south end of the limestone shelf. When disturbed, it migrates to the north end of the shelf, retreats to deeper water and then returns back to the shelf to feed again. (Naiman and Soltz, 1981)
Although they have little economic benefit to humans, studies of the evolutionary patterns of (Ono, et al., 1983)are of interest to many students of evolutionary biology, especially the effects of small population size and geographic isolation. The mechanisms of evolution of the Devils Hole pupfish are analogous to those of Darwin's finches, which are useful for educational and research purposes.
There are no known adverse affects ofon humans.
Although the population of (Bunnell, 1970)is extremely small (the population varies from 200 to 800 depending on the time of year), the Devils Hole pupfish has resided in the same small area for over 30,000 years. They are perhaps one of the most geographically isolated organisms on this planet, and are so adapted to their surroundings that when bred in artificial habitats, they undergo rapid morphological changes not observed in those that live in Devils Hole. has a "rate" of evolution must be extraordinary for them to exhibit so many changes in such a short geological span of time.
Sarah Stark (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, William Fink (editor, instructor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Renee Sherman Mulcrone (editor).
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
photosynthetic or plant constituent of plankton; mainly unicellular algae. (Compare to zooplankton.)
Referring to a mating system in which a female mates with several males during one breeding season (compare polygynous).
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
uses sight to communicate
breeding takes place throughout the year
animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
Bunnell, S. 1970. The Desert Pupfish. California Tomorrow, Vol. 1: 2-14.
Deacon, J., C. Deacon Williams. 1991. Ash Meadows and the Legacy of the Devil's Hole Pupfish. Pp. 69-87 in W Minckley, J Deacon, eds. Battle Against Extinction. Tuscon, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press.
Deacon, J., D. Lockard, G. Kobetich, J. Radtke, H. Gunther, D. Soltz. 1980. Devil's Hole Pupfish Recovery Plan. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Deacon, J., F. Taylor. 1994. Diel oxygen variation and hatching success of Devils Hole pupfish: An Hypothesis. Desert Fishes Council Twenty Sixth Annual Symposium, 17 to 20 November: 14.
Duff, D. 1976. "Managing" the Pupfish Proves Fruitless. Defenders, Vol. 51 No. 2: 120.
La Rivers, I. 1962. Fishes and Fisheries of Nevada. Nevada: Nevada State Fish and Game Comission.
Naiman, R., D. Soltz. 1981. Fishes In North American Deserts. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
Ono, D., J. Williams, A. Wagner. 1983. Vanishing Fishes of North America. Washington, D.C.: Stone Wall Press, Inc..
Soltz, D. 1979. "The Native Fish Conservancy Webpage" (On-line). Accessed October 20, 2004 at http://www.nativefish.org/Articles/desert.htm.
Strecker, U., A. Kodric Brown. 1999. Mate Recognition Systems in a Species Flock of Mexican Pupfish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Volume 12, Issue 5: 927.