Puerto Rican coquis, ("Amphibians", 2003), are found naturally in Puerto Rico up to elevations of 1,200m. They have been introduced to southern Florida, Hawaii, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Puerto Rican coquis occur in abundance throughout Puerto Rico in terrestrial areas except for the driest regions of the island. They are often found in cohabitation with humans, such as in homes and parks, because of their unrestricted habitat use. Commonly used natural habitats include humid mountain forest at elevations less than 1,200 m and dry forest. Within forests, ("Amphibians", 2003; Stewart and Woolbright, 1996)are found at all elevations from the understory to the canopy.
- Range elevation
- 0 to 1,200 m
- 0.00 to ft
- Sexual Dimorphism
- female larger
- Range mass
- 54 to 117 g
- 1.90 to 4.12 oz
- Range length
- 24 to 55 mm
- 0.94 to 2.17 in
Development proceeds from larval form to froglet within the egg. The free-living tadpole stage is bypassed in development, allowing eggs to be laid in the absence of standing water. Clutches of eggs hatch within 8 weeks and reproductive maturity is reached within approximately one year. The genus Eleutherodactylus developes an egg tooth to free the young froglet from the egg. ("Invasive Species Database", 2005; "Invasive Species Database", 2005; Fogarty and Vilella, 2002)
- Development - Life Cycle
Males emit a two part call consisting of a "co" which is used when threatened by another male and the "qui" which attracts females . Once a nesting territory is established, males and females fight off intruders by chasing, jump attacks, and sometimes biting. This territorial behavior is exhibited by males as well as females. ("Invasive Species Database", 2005; Fogarty and Vilella, 2002; Parsons, 2000)
Coereba flaveola portoricensis), Puerto Rican bullfinch (Loxigilla portoricensis) and Puerto Rican tody (Todus mexicanus) are all birds which share nests with . (Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; "Invasive Species Database", 2005; Schwartz and Henderson, 1991)reproduce year round, but reproduction rates increase during the rainy season. Fertilization occurs internally in the female and approximately 3-45 eggs are laid in the nest. Clutches are laid approximately every 8 weeks. embryos do not emerge as tadpoles, but develop directly into froglets and emerge approximately 17 to 26 days after the eggs are laid. The male remains to guard the nest for many days after froglets hatch. The absence of the tadpole stage allows nesting to occur in dry sites devoid of standing water. Nesting sites occur in protected cavities such as tree holes and the petioles of rolled palms. Abandoned bird nests are also utilized by for nesting sites. The bananaquit (
- Key Reproductive Features
- year-round breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Clutches are laid approximately every 8 weeks throughout the year.
- Breeding season
- Puerto Rican coquis breed throughout the year and more frequently during the rainy season.
- Range number of offspring
- 3 to 45
- Average number of offspring
- Range time to hatching
- 17 to 26 days
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 1 years
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 1 years
Males are primary caretakers of eggs. They offer protection from predators as well as ensure that eggs are moist through contact with their skin. Males will leave the nest during extremely dry periods in order to collect moisture for the egg clutch. ("Invasive Species Database", 2005)
- Parental Investment
Maximum lifespan of (Stewart and Woolbright, 1996)is not known but individuals have been found in the wild up to 6 years old. An estimated 94% of adult individuals do not live past their first year.
- Range lifespan
- 6 (high) years
- Range lifespan
- Typical lifespan
- 1 (high) years
- Typical lifespan
- Average lifespan
- < 1 years
- Average lifespan
Communication and Perception
- Communication Channels
Puerto Rican coquis feed primarily on arthropods. Diet varies with size and age but not gender. Smaller, juvenile frogs eat smaller prey, such as ants. Larger frogs have a more diverse diet, including larger organisms such as spiders, moths, crickets, snails and even small frogs. It seems that more than half of the adult coqui’s diet is made up of roaches and crickets and the remaining half is made up of primarily ants, due to their abundance in the forest. Their mode of predation is the energy conserving ambush method. ("Invasive Species Database", 2005; Duellman and Trueb, 1986; Stewart and Woolbright, 1996)individuals will sit on leaves, not moving at all, until the prey is very close, whereupon they strike. They often move less than 5 cm to reach prey in a strike. often remain at profitable foraging sites throughout the night.
- Animal Foods
- terrestrial non-insect arthropods
Predators of Alsophis portoricensis) as well as large arthropods such as spiders (giant crab spider, Olios sp.). Giant crab spiders will attack and kill by jump attack and lethal injection. When threatened, juveniles take refuge in the leaf litter and undergrowth on the forest floor. Adult coquis are camouflaged in the foliage of the forest by their markings and sedentary habits. ("Invasive Species Database", 2005; Duellman and Trueb, 1986; Stewart and Woolbright, 1996)include native birds, snakes (Puerto Rican racer,
- Anti-predator Adaptations
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
- Positive Impacts
- controls pest population
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
- Negative Impacts
- household pest
The (Hedges, et al., 2004)population is currently identified as near threatened based on possible decline in population size which has been witnessed on the island of Puerto Rico in recent years. This is particularly true in the case of populations at higher altitudes. Threats to the population include pollution as well as pathogens such as chytridiomycosis (amphibian fungal disease). Conservation methods are in place for habitat protection but further action needs to be taken in the area of disease control and more complete population monitoring.
Tanya Dewey (), Animal Diversity Web.
Katy Maiorana (author), Kalamazoo College, Ann Fraser (editor, instructor), Kalamazoo College.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
- oceanic islands
islands that are not part of continental shelf areas, they are not, and have never been, connected to a continental land mass, most typically these are volcanic islands.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
specialized for leaping or bounding locomotion; jumps or hops.
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
- year-round breeding
breeding takes place throughout the year
2003. Amphibians. Pp. "164" in M Hutchins, W Duellman, N Schlager, eds. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. 6, Second Edition. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group.
2002. Eleutherodactylus coqui. Pp. "90" in T Halliday, K Adler, eds. The Firefly encyclopedia of reptiles and amphibians, Vol. 1, First Edition. Buffalo: Firefly Books.
1999. "Gulf States Marine Fishery Commission" (On-line). Eleutherodactylus coqui (Thomas). Accessed October 08, 2005 at http://nis.gsmfc.org/nis_factsheet.php?toc_id=204.
2005. "Invasive Species Database" (On-line). National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) and Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). Accessed October 16, 2005 at http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=105&fr=1&sts=.
Duellman, W., L. Trueb. 1986. Biology of Amphibians. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company.
Fogarty, J., F. Vilella. 2002. Population dynamics of Eleutherodactylus coqui in Codillera Forest Reserves of Puerto Rico. Journal of Herpetology, 36: "193-201".
Hedges, B., R. Joglar, R. Thomas, R. Powell. 2004. "Eleutherodactylus coqui" (On-line).
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed October 16, 2005 at http://www.redlist.org/search/details.php?species=56522.
Krauss, F. 1999. "Coqui & greenhouse frogs: Alien Caribbean frogs in Hawaii" (On-line). Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk Project. Accessed October 06, 2005 at http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesInHawaii/species/frogs/index.html.
Parsons, H. 2000. The Nature of Frogs: Amphibians with attitude. Vancouver: Greystone Books.
Schwartz, A., R. Henderson. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions and Natural History. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.
Stewart, M., L. Woolbright. 1996. Amphibians. Pp. "274-320" in D Reagan, R Waide, eds. The Food Web of a Tropical Rain Forest. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.