Vibrio fischeri. (Ruby and Ho Lee, 1998)is a sepiolid squid endemic to the oceanic habitats surrounding the Hawaiian Islands. This squid can greatly affect the relative abundance and geographic distribution of its bacterial symbiont
sepiolid squids reside in very deep water. is often seen laying its eggs on the foundations of coral ridges. During the day, these squid are buried in the sand. At night, they emerge and wade through the sand with their bioluminescent light organ which allows them to see and hunt in the dark. (Nyholm and McFall-Ngai, 1998; Shears, 1988)is found in warm, shallow coastal waters 2-4 cm deep. This is unusual because most
sepiolid squids. The mantle plus tentacles measure an average of 35 mm (1.4 in) in length, and weighs an average of 2.76 grams (0.09 oz). The birth mass of a hatchling is an average 0.005 grams (0.00018 oz). Males have slightly larger suckers than females, with thinner posterior mantles. Both sexes have a pair of unique paddle shaped fins that aid in swimming. A feature unique to is the bilobed and bioluminescent light organ present inside the squid’s mantle cavity. This organ, which functions through its interaction with its symbiotic partner Vibrio fischeri, provides light, allowing the squid to hunt its prey at night. This squid also possesses metabracial vesicles, which function as the eyes of this bobtail squid. The vesicles allow the squid to perceive and manipulate the amount of light it can give off, so the squid can camouflage itself in a process known as counterillumination. (Boettcher and Ruby, 1995; Hanlon, et al., 1997)is one of the smallest and slimmest
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes shaped differently
- Range length
- 20 to 30 mm
- 0.79 to 1.18 in
- Development - Life Cycle
There is no information on the mating system of.
Mating is initiated by the male, which grabs the female and places its spermatophore in the female's mantle. The female's mantle will become larger as it is filled with eggs. Mating lasts 30-50 minutes, and occurs mostly at night. Studies have shown that rainfall increases the amount of breeding. There are no specific seasonal breeding intervals for this squid. Females tend to lay eggs in the morning in shallow areas on coral ridges. Clutch sizes vary between 50-200 eggs. It takes an average 30 minutes to lay each clutch of eggs. The number of clutches each female lays varies greatly. After females are finished laying eggs, they cover them with sand and then depart, leaving the offspring to fend for themselves.
- Key Reproductive Features
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Range number of offspring
- 50 to 250
- Average number of offspring
The female lays clutches of eggs and covers the eggs with sand after which there are no interactions.
- Parental Investment
- Typical lifespan
- 2 to 3 months
- Typical lifespan
- Typical lifespan
- 3 to 5 months
- Typical lifespan
is most active between dusk and dawn. During this time the organism captures and consumes its prey. Although nocturnal, can still be active in daylight. When not hunting, usually buries itself in the sand substrate or is covered in at least a small layer of sand to camouflage itself from predators. This species also uses counterillumination, another form of camouflage where the squid controls the amount of light from the light organ to match the light emitted from the light source in the area.
Communication and Perception
Vibrio fischeri. This mutualistic relationship begins early in the life stages of the squid and development of the light organ results. The squid controls the amount and timing of the bioluminescence given off by the bacteria. When the bacteria are found outside of this mutualistic relationship the strength of the light given off is not nearly as strong as it is when it is housed inside the light organ of . This light organ is generally used for a specialized behavior known as counterillumination, which allows the organism to camouflage themselves and avoid predators. (Boettcher and Ruby, 1990; Jones and Nishiguchi, 2004; McFall-Ngai and Ruby, 1998)has a symbiotic relationship with a bioluminescent marine bacterium called
- Other Communication Modes
The primary component of the adult Artemia. is a cryptic "sit and wait" predator. The squid buries itself in the sand with its tentacles and wait for prey to pass by. attacks by aiming all the arms at the prey and strikes using the two tentacles. If the squid misses the prey it remains buried and waits for another organism. (Archetti, et al., 2011; Fleisher and Case, 1995; Moynihan, 1983)diet is mysid shrimp, and younger squids will also consume crustaceans in the genus
- Primary Diet
- eats non-insect arthropods
- Animal Foods
- aquatic crustaceans
- Anti-predator Adaptations
Vibrio fischeri, making the squid bioluminescent.has a mutualistic relationship with the marine bacteria
- Vibrio fischeri
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
There is no information indicating any positive effects by Euprymna scolopes on humans.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no known negative effects ofon humans.
is classified by IUCN as Data Deficient because of the uncertain status of its taxonomy (genus and species).
Eric Hasbun (author), The College of New Jersey, Will Wardell (author), The College of New Jersey, Keith Pecor (editor), The College of New Jersey, Renee Mulcrone (editor), Special Projects.
- Pacific Ocean
body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. This is the world's largest ocean, covering about 28% of the world's surface.
Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. see also oceanic vent.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
- external fertilization
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
generates and uses light to communicate
- polarized light
light waves that are oriented in particular direction. For example, light reflected off of water has waves vibrating horizontally. Some animals, such as bees, can detect which way light is polarized and use that information. People cannot, unless they use special equipment.
- saltwater or marine
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.
uses touch to communicate
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
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