Odocoileus virginianus, which is the white-tailed deer. These deer are commonly found in North America, particularly southeastern United States, therefore, so are these liver flukes. There have been other reports where they have found this parasite fairly prominent in deer in the Pacific northwest, New York, the Great Lakes states such as the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and southern Canada. is also indigenous in livestock and other deer from the Cervidae family living in Europe. Therefore, they primarily occupy only these two continents, but has been seen sporadically in various parts of the world, which is due to the introduction of foreign species and the shipment of infected livestock. (Foreyt, 1990; Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 2010; Mulvey, et al., 1991)resides in the liver of their definitive host
Odocoileus virginianus, the white-tailed deer. Even though white-tailed deer can be distributed in various regions, they are more likely to be found in deer inhabiting lowland swamps and other wetland habitats where they have access to their intermediate hosts, freshwater snails. These snails include Lymnaea humilis, L. palustris, and L. stagnalis. can occupy other hosts other than the white-tailed deer. They reside primarily in the livers of sheep and cattle. However, these flukes can migrate to other organs such as the lungs or kidneys. (Campbell and Todd, 1954; Foreyt and Todd, 1976; Foreyt and Todd, 1978)is primarily found only in the liver of their definitive hosts
- Terrestrial Biomes
- Aquatic Biomes
- lakes and ponds
- rivers and streams
- temporary pools
- Range length
- 15 to 30 mm
- 0.59 to 1.18 in
After development for some time in the definitive host, adult flukes can deposit 20,000 to 30,000 eggs per day within the cavity or the ducts of the host liver. These eggs have a thick wall with an operculum, which is essentially a door where the organism hatches from at a later stage. From the liver, the eggs move down the intestine and exit the host via feces. Once exiting from the host, the egg is still only a single cell. These eggs develop and hatch within moist feces, shallow water, or any wet environment. After seven to nine days, one can see (Campbell, 1961; Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 2010; Mulvey, et al., 1991)'s development via different light shadings on the egg. This stage in development is called the morula stage. On the eleventh day, the anterior end of the egg is void of the embryo and the yolk globules. This absence is known as the mucoid plug. Later, on the fifteenth day, cilia are seen on the organism as flickering motions. By the seventeenth day, the miracidium is fully developed. After twenty-five days, the eggs hatch at night into free-swimming miracidium. From here, the miracidium needs to seek out their intermediate host, a snail. After penetrating a snail, the parasite loses its cilia and develops into a sporocyst form, which produces redia and daughter redia. Within the redia, another stage, the cercariae develops. After approximately four days, the cercariae emerge from the redia and continue its way out of the snail into the external environment. To proceed to the next stage, the cercariae encyst on vegetation, becoming metacercariae, where the definitive host grazes. After migrating to the gut, the larvae burrow out of the intestine to the liver and the larvae develops into an adult after approximately three months. The cycle begins again.
- Breeding season
- In good conditions, it takes approximately 5 months to complete its life cycle.
- Range number of offspring
- 20,000 to 30,000
- Average number of offspring
is a hermaphroditic parasite and it does not demonstrate any parental investment in its offspring.
- Parental Investment
- no parental involvement
The lifespan forsolely depends on the lifespan of its host, whether it is the white-tailed deer, sheep, or cattle.
The behavior patterns of the miracidium stage involve a wide range of mobility and may be random. They move in the horizontal plane with very quick motions; however, there is not much movement in the vertical plane. Whenever they do move, they are rotating about their axis either clockwise or counterclockwise. In general, the miracidium can swim actively for eight to twelve hours and in the presence of a snail, will move toward the snail. However, the miricidium is highly affected by temperature. In low temperatures, the miracidium decreases its swimming speed. This enables the miracidium to increase its longevity by conserving their energy resources. Even though the miracidium are increasing their rate of survival with energy conservation, they decrease their ability to seek their intermediate host thereby preventing them from reaching the next stage of their life cycle.
There are no known observations on the behavior ofin its redia stage.
Once the cercariae emerge from their intermediate host, they possess tails that propel them to seek out vegetation. Upon finding vegetation, the cercariae encyst (now called metacercariae) to protect themselves from any harsh conditions the external environment may bring.
Communication and Perception
There are no known communication or perception features for.
Since (Foreyt and Parish, 1990)parasitizes primarily the liver of their hosts, they feed solely on the host blood through the use of their mouths. In the sporocyst stage, they do not have a digestive system; therefore, they feed by absorption through their tegument.
- Animal Foods
- body fluids
There are no known predators of.
- Known Predators
- There are no known predators.
- Ecosystem Impact
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
There are no known resources that demonstrate positive economic importance by.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Cervidae family or ruminants. However, has very adverse effects on livestock economics. If the parasite is ingested by sheep, they can do much damage to the animal. Unlike deer and cattle, the immune response of sheep do not encapsulate the parasite, allowing the migration of the parasite through the liver tissue. This can cause severe hemmorhaging and the onset of peritonitis. causes such severe damage to the sheep that it only takes two or three of these flukes to kill the animal. This strong pathogenicity in sheep can enduce a great amount of stress for the sheep farmer and cause a large amount of economic loss.does not affect humans directly because their main host involves animals from the
Even though cattle are able to encapsulate and reduce the migration of the parasite, the fact that liver flukes still reside in the tissue after slaughtering greatly degrades the value of the meat and renders it unmarketable. Therefore, (Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 2010)has a strong economic influence on the livestock industry if they ever infect a herd of sheep or cattle.
- Negative Impacts
- causes or carries domestic animal disease
Stephanie Nguyen (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Heidi Liere (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, John Marino (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Barry OConnor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Renee Mulcrone (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
reproduction that is not sexual; that is, reproduction that does not include recombining the genotypes of two parents
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
- causes or carries domestic animal disease
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
a period of time when growth or development is suspended in insects and other invertebrates, it can usually only be ended the appropriate environmental stimulus.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
an animal that mainly eats blood
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
- year-round breeding
breeding takes place throughout the year
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