The native range of (Johnsen, 2009)expands from the Baltic sea to the Karelian isthmus in Russia. has also been introduced to the rivers surrounding the Baltic sea to the North, and northern Europe.
monogean worm the dorsal side is usually convex and the ventral side concave. A monogean has three body regions: cephalic (anterior to pharynx) trunk (body) and penduncle (tapered end of body). This worm attaches to its host with an opisthaptor, which is an organ in the posterior region. Although usually colorless or grey, eggs or ingested food inside may make the worm appear red, pink, brown, yellow or black. is hermaphroditic. Reproductively, it has an ovovitellarium, a fused mass of ova and vitelline cells. This species does not contain a vaginae, but has a birth pore.is a 0.5-1.0 mm long flat worm. As a
All Gyrodactylus are essentially morphologically similar so they distinguish them by chaetotaxy and ribosomal RNA subunits as well as RNA internal transcribed spacers. can be determined by using the oligonucleotide probe (GsV4) by performing polymerase chain reactions or PCR. (Cunningham, et al., 1995a; Cunningham, et al., 1995b; Johnsen, 2009; Lindenstrom, et al., 2003; Roberts and Janovy, Jr, 2000)
All parental care occurs while the daughter is developing in the parent. They receive nutrients and grow until they are born in which they are left to defend for themselves. (Cable and Harris, 2002; Olstad, et al., 2006)
The lifespan of (Olstad, et al., 2006)is temperature dependent. In colder temperatures it can attach to a dead host and survive to over 15 days. If not on a host the survival time is cut to 6 days.
They do not have a defined home range since they can travel along with their hosts and can switch from hosts of different species that have different home ranges. (Bakke, et al., 1992)
Monogeans in general have a cerebral ganglia at the anterior end, and the nervous system extends out in a ladder pattern. This species likely has chemosensors and mechanosensors. (Roberts and Janovy, Jr, 2000)
The adult stage of (FRS Marine Laboratory Aberdeen, 2004)feeds on the host’s skin, mucus, and fins. When they develop in their parent they receive nutrients from their parent as they develop into an adult.
has no known predators and is difficult to control.
Salmo salar, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus, North American brook trout S. fontinalis, grayling Thymallus thymallus, North American lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, common whitefish Coregonus lavaretus, three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, common minnow Phoxinus phoxinus, ninespine Stickleback Pungitius pungitius, Solin Salmon Salmo obtusirostris, and brown trout Salmo trutta in their freshwater stage. They prefer to attach to the dorsal fin, pectoral fin, and anal fins in this sequential order. However, with increased density of they are less selective and will attach to any area of open skin.is a parasite of freshwater fish and fish migrating from the ocean to and from freshwater. It is found on the skin and fins of Atlantic Salmon,
The disease resulting from its infections is gyrodactylosis, which has been reported to be responsible for the death of a wide variety of fish. Whatever the pathogenic mechanisms involved in gyrodactylosis are not known, but host mortality is probably due to the parasite.
has no positive benefits for humans.
is a common parasite and is therefore not a species of concern.
Andrew Szczembara (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Heidi Liere (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, John Marino (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Barry OConnor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Renee Mulcrone (editor), Special Projects.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
reproduction that is not sexual; that is, reproduction that does not include recombining the genotypes of two parents
Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. see also oceanic vent.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
fertilization takes place outside the female's body
union of egg and spermatozoan
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
the area of shoreline influenced mainly by the tides, between the highest and lowest reaches of the tide. An aquatic habitat.
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
An aquatic biome consisting of the open ocean, far from land, does not include sea bottom (benthic zone).
an animal that mainly eats fish
the regions of the earth that surround the north and south poles, from the north pole to 60 degrees north and from the south pole to 60 degrees south.
condition of hermaphroditic animals (and plants) in which the female organs and their products appear before the male organs and their products
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
breeding takes place throughout the year
Bakke, T., P. Harris, P. Jansen, L. Hansen. 1992. Host specificity and dispersal strategy in gyrodactylid monogeneans, with particular reference to Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 13: 63-74.
Cable, J., P. Harris. 2002. Gyrodactylid Developmental Biology: historical review, current status and future trends. International Journal for Parasitology, 32: 255-280.
Cable, J., P. Harris, T. Bakke. 2000. Population growth of Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea) on Norwegian and Baltic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks. Parasitology, 121 (6): 621-629.
Cunningham, C., D. McGillivray, K. MacKenzie. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 based on the small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA gene. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 71 (1): 139-142.
Cunningham, C., D. McGillivray, K. MacKenzie, W. Melvin. 1995. Discrimination between Gyrodactylus salaris, G. derjavini and G. truttae (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) using restriction fragment length polymorphisms and an oligonucleotide probe within the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Parasitology, 111: 87-94. Accessed March 19, 2011 at http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=4185076.
FRS Marine Laboratory Aberdeen, 2004. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line). Accessed March 19, 2011 at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Uploads/Documents/AAAH01Gyro.pdf.
GyroDb, 2007. "Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line). GyroDb - A home for gyrodactylids on the web. Accessed March 19, 2011 at http://www.gyrodb.net/index.php.
Harris, P., A. Soleng, T. Bakke. 1998. Killing of Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) mediated by a host complement. Parasitology, 117 (2): 137-143.
Johnsen, B. 2009. "NOBANIS - Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet Gyrodactylus salaris" (On-line). Accessed March 20, 2011 at http://www.nobanis.org/files/factsheets/Gyrodactylus_salaris.pdf.
Lindenstrom, T., C. Collins, J. Bresciani, C. Cunningham, K. Buchmann. 2003. Characterization of a Gyrodactylus salaris variant: infection biology, morphology and molecular genetics. Parasitology, 127: 165-177. Accessed March 19, 2011 at http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=166926.
Malmberg, G. 1973. Gyrodactylus infestations on species of Salmo in Danish and Swedish hatcheries. Norwegian Journal of Zoology, 21: 325 - 326.
Olstad, K., J. Cable, G. Robertsen, T. BaCablekke. 2006. Unpredicted transmission strategy of Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae): Survival and infectivity of parasites on dead hosts. Parasitology, 133 (1): 33-41.
Paladini, G., A. Gustinelli, M. Fioravanti, H. Hansen, A. Shinn. 2009. First report of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) on Italian cultured stocks of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Veterinary Parasitology, 165 (3-4): 290-297.
Roberts, L., J. Janovy, Jr. 2000. Foundations of Parasitology. Boston: McGraw Hill.