Currently, the observed geographic range of the jumping spider ("MN DNR Jumping Spiders- Statement of Need and Reasonableness", 2012; "Tree of Life Web Project Habronattus calcaratus", 1995; The Nature Conservancy, 2014)extends from the Cumberland Plateau, which is a vast stretch of hardwood forest occupying areas in Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky northward through Maine and parts of Canada. The range also extends westward to the Great Lakes region located in the Midwestern United States. The species has recently been found as far west as Minnesota extending its previous known range by 125 miles. The species is also found as far south as Florida and is most common in the extreme southeastern United States.
This species is found mainly in eastern temperate forests with deciduous tree populations including oak, maple, and birch. It has been found to reside in areas of mid/average continental elevations within the observed geographic range from sea level to high areas in the Appalachians (2025m). The spider is mainly ground dwelling but will also be commonly found within vegetated areas with other micro-inhabitants providing prey for the spiders. ("MN DNR Jumping Spiders- Statement of Need and Reasonableness", 2012; Hedin and Maddison, 2013)
Habronattus genus by a centrally located white abdominal stripe. Adult spiders average 5 to 6 mm in length with males having an average weight of just 13.5 mg and females weighting slightly more. Males possess a hook-like structure on their third leg and are typically smaller than the females. Females are more cryptically colored than the males enabling them to blend into the landscape. There are generally three subspecies described according to geographic range. Habronattus c. calcaratus, found in the extreme southeastern United States, is more brightly colored and is less hardy than other subspecies. Habronattus c. maddisoni is found in the eastern/northeastern United States and parts of Canada and is a larger, more robust spider with smooth dark coloring. Habronattus c. agricola resembles H. c. maddisoni but is distinguished with a bright white stripe across its face. ("Tree of Life Web Project Habronattus calcaratus", 1995; Hebets and Maddison, 2005; Hedin and Maddison, 2013)is a type of jumping spider uniquely distinguished from other members of the
Species specific development for Habronattus calaratus species. After mating, eggs develop within the female before being placed in an egg sack for further development. Several weeks later the spiders hatch and complete several molts before venturing on their own to hunt prey. After the final molt the spider has reached adulthood and is at full size with reproductive organs now apparent. (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2014)is currently unknown. Life histories of other members of the Salticidae family are known and can be assumed to be similar to the
Species within the Habronattus genus exhibit complex courtship and mating systems. Males are brightly colored and have complex courtship displays which are often accompanied by seismic signals and sound production. The display movements are synchronized with sound production or vibrations in the males courtship dance. This system creates competition among male spiders to perform the best displays for favored mate preference and is a driving factor in selection. (Elias, et al., 2012)
Species specific reproduction details for Salticidae family typically have a single reproductive event after which eggs are protected by the mother until they hatch or a short time thereafter. Due to relatively short lifespans and several molts required by the young to reach sexual maturity, adult spiders only exist for several months before reproductive efforts are completed. Although many eggs are produced and hatch only a small fraction of these spiders make it to maturity. (Encyclopedia of Life, 2014)are currently unknown. Similar species from the
Species specific lifespan data for Salticidae family typically do not live longer than a one year period and typically die after reproduction efforts or after young disperse on their own. (Encyclopedia of Life, 2014)is currently unknown. Related members in the
While there is little information available specifically for Salticidae family. Members in this family typically hunt for prey during the day due to exceptional eyesight and perception. There is also a high degree of prey specificity and these spiders learn to distinguish types of prey after only one initial encounter. The spider will stalk prey disguising its movements and attacks frontally at a distance, often jumping back off before finally feeding on the victim. Slower moving prey, such as caterpillars, is preferred as they have more difficulty escaping. Hunting skills improve with experience and age of the spider. (Bartos and Szczepko, 2012), it can be assumed that these spiders follow similar behavior pattern of the
The range is likely expected to be relatively small considering the the full adult size of the spider is only 5 to 6 mm in length. (Hedin and Maddison, 2013)
The primary sensory signal is vision-based, as members of the Salticidae spider family have the best vision of all invertebrates. There are a total of eight eyes for improved sensory in multiple directions and this is important for prey acquisition. The brain also has a large region dedicated to visual processing activities. Male spiders in the genus Habronattus also utilize auditory communication especially for mating and courtship performances to communicate with female spiders. (Elias, et al., 2012; Maddison, 1985)
Predators of (Su and Li, 2006)include birds, as well as larger predatory spiders. The complex courtship displays conducted by the males have been implicated in attracting unwanted predators. Females may be more vulnerable to predation during these encounters as they are larger than the males and thus offer better prey opportunity. However, females have darker coloration that functions as camouflage, while males are brightly colored, making them easier targets.
These spiders add to beneficial biodiversity and help keep insect populations in check by feeding on smaller organisms within their habitat range. Spiders in general are beneficial for this reason and predatory spiders which actively hunt such as those in the Habronattus genus may even offer agricultural applications to effectively control pests in field crops. (Young and Edwards, 1990)
is a ground/vegetation dwelling spider which is not a typical household pest and presents no major threat to humans.
has no special conservation status.
Andrew Hill (author), Minnesota State University Mankato, Robert Sorensen (editor), Minnesota State University, Mankato, Angela Miner (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
imitates a communication signal or appearance of another kind of organism
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
specialized for leaping or bounding locomotion; jumps or hops.
remains in the same area
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sound above the range of human hearing for either navigation or communication or both
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
uses sight to communicate
2012. "MN DNR Jumping Spiders- Statement of Need and Reasonableness" (On-line). Accessed March 26, 2014 at http://files.dnr.state.mn.us/input/rules/ets/SONAR_spiders.pdf.
1995. "Tree of Life Web Project http://tolweb.org/Habronattus_calcaratus." (On-line). Accessed March 26, 2014 at
Elias, D., W. Maddison, C. Peckmezian, M. Girard, A. Mason. 2012. Orchestrating the score: complex multimodal courtship in the Habronattus coecatus group of Habronattus jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, March 2012: 522-547.
Encyclopedia of Life, 2014. "Encyclopedia of Life" (On-line). Accessed April 23, 2014 at http://eol.org/pages/186/details.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2014. "Encyclopædia Britannica" (On-line). Accessed February 23, 2014 at http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/559817/spider.
Hebets, E., W. Maddison. 2005. Xenophilic mating preferences among populations of the jumping spider Habronattus pugillis Griswold. Behavioral Ecology, 16/6: 981-988. Accessed April 17, 2014 at http://beheco.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/6/981.full.
Hedin, M., W. Maddison. 2013. "San Diego State University" (On-line). Accessed April 17, 2014 at http://www.bio.sdsu.edu/pub/spiders/CaHabro.html.
Huang, J., R. Cheng, D. Li, I. Tso. 2011. Salticid predation as one potential driving force of ant mimicry in jumping spiders. Biological Sciences, 278/1710: 1356-1364.
Maddison, W. 1985. "Tree of Life web project" (On-line). Accessed April 23, 2014 at http://tolweb.org/accessory/Jumping_Spider_Vision?acc_id=1946.
Maddison, W. 2011. "Tree of Life web project" (On-line). Accessed April 23, 2014 at http://tolweb.org/Salticidae/2677.
Stratton, G. 1988. Sound Production and Associated Morphology in Male Jumping Spiders of the Habronattus agilis Species Group. Journal of Arachnology, 16/2: 199-211. Accessed March 26, 2014 at http://www.jstor.org/stable/3705754.
Su, K., D. Li. 2006. Female-biased predation risk and its differential effect on the male and female courtship behaviour of jumping spiders. Animal Behavior, 71/3: 531-537.
The Nature Conservancy, 2014. "Cumberland Plateau" (On-line). Accessed April 14, 2014 at http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/northamerica/unitedstates/tennessee/explore/cumberland-plateau.xml.
Young, O., G. Edwards. 1990. Spiders in United States field crops and their potential effect on crop pests. Journal of Arachnology, 18/1: 1-27.