The geographic range of (Smith and Xie, 2008), also known as the Korean hare, includes the entire Korean Peninsula as well as southern Jilin Province and northeastern parts of China.
Korean hares occupy various habitats across their geographic distribution, from plains to mountains, preferring areas where vegetation is abundant. A study conducted in Mt. Chirisan National Park, South Korea indicated that (Flux and Angermann, 1990; Lee and Rhim, 2012; Smith and Xie, 2008; Smith, A.T. and Johnston, C.H., 2008)abundance was positively associated with the percent of shrub cover in a given landscape. Korean hares can live in a variety of areas, including cultivated lands, plains, scrublands, and forest areas.
- Other Habitat Features
- Average elevation
- 500 m
- 1640.42 ft
Fur color in Korean hares varies, but is generally a brownish shade. The dorsal parts of the body are usually brown or grayish brown, and the ventral area is paler or white. An adult Korean hare weighs 2.1 to 2.6 kg, and has a body length of 45 to 54 cm. The tail is short, typically 2 to 5 cm in length with a black stripe located on the upper side in the middle, and the ears are 7.6 to 8.3 cm long. They have long ears and well-furred feet to aid in their ability to travel fast and cover vast areas in a short time period. Korean hares are born fully furred and with their eyes opened. They have very big eyes which allow for greater visual acuity in dim light. Male hares are slightly smaller than female hares. (Flux and Angermann, 1990; Nowak, 1999)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- female larger
- Range mass
- 1350 to 7000 g
- 47.58 to 246.70 oz
- Range length
- 400 to 700 mm
- 15.75 to 27.56 in
There is little known about mating in Korean hares, but there are many commonalities to mating within hares. Hares use scent cues secreted from special glands located under the chin and in the groin. These scent cues are believed to play a key role in sexual communication, as well as in signaling social status. Male Korean hares become bolder during the mating season, engaging in fights with other males and pursuing females. They fight by using boxing motions with their forefeet and kicking with their hind feet. (Macdonald, 2001; Nowak, 1999)
- Mating System
Korean hares have a long breeding season, which peaks in spring. Up to a dozen males congregate around a female in estrus, boxing each other and chasing off other rivals. The gestation period for most Lepus species is 42 days and the average litter size increases seasonally to a peak then declines; there are normally 3 to 5 litters per year. The annual production of young per female is about 10. (Flux and Angermann, 1990; Macdonald, 2001; Nowak, 1999; Flux and Angermann, 1990; Macdonald, 2001; Nowak, 1999)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- induced ovulation
- Breeding interval
- Breeding interval length in Korean hares is not reported.
- Breeding season
- The majority of hare species have a long breeding season.
- Range number of offspring
- 6 to 8
- Range gestation period
- 38 (low) days
- Average gestation period
- 42 days
- Average weaning age
- 3 days
- Range time to independence
- 17 to 23 days
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 1 years
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 1 years
Little is known about parental investment in Korean hares. However, male hares are not generally involved in caring for young. Maternal investment is also limited in hares. They engage in a reproductive strategy known as "absentee parenting." Nursing takes place once or twice a day, usually at night, and only lasts for just a few minutes. It is thought that the lack of social contact between the mother and her young is a strategy which diminishes the chances of attracting the attention of predators. (Macdonald, 2001)
The majority of Korean hares die within the first year of life in the wild because they are subject to high predation rates. In captivity, they have been reported to live to the age of 5. (Macdonald, 2001)
- Range lifespan
- 5 (high) years
- Range lifespan
- Average lifespan
- 1 years
- Average lifespan
Little information on the behavior of this species has been reported. They typically travel in open habitats to feed during late afternoon or evening. They are not thought to be social and there is no indication of territorial behavior, but hierarchies do exist which affects access to food. Shrubs, bushes, and rocks are used as cover to protect these hares from predators. Korean hares occupy different habitats in regions where they overlap geographically with other hares and rabbits. The ranges of hare species are not static; one species can compete with another and exclude it from its former habitat if ecological conditions change. (Flux and Angermann, 1990; Smith, A.T. and Johnston, C.H., 2008)
- Key Behaviors
- dominance hierarchies
Home range size of Korean hares is not reported in the literature.
Communication and Perception
Details of communication among Korean hares have not been reported. In general, hares communicate with each other by drumming their feet and through scent cues. Female hares make a shrieking sound to call to the young for feeding times. (Flux and Angermann, 1990)
- Plant Foods
- roots and tubers
- wood, bark, or stems
Korean hares use speed and agility to avoid becoming prey to predators. They also camouflage themselves by flattening out among vegetation. Gray wolves and red foxes are known predators of Korean hares. Other possible predators are large raptors and snakes. They are also well-known game animals and trapped by villagers for food. (Flux and Angermann, 1990; Macdonald, 2001; Nowak, 1999)
- Anti-predator Adaptations
Korean hares act as both important prey items for many species and, as herbivores, act to control plant growth and disperse seeds and nutrients. Hares can be most selective in eating grass seed-heads, ￼but whether this curtails or increases the spread of these grasses will depend on the relative number of seeds digested and passed through the animal. In hilly country, these herbivores eat at the bottom of the valley floors and defecate while traveling back and forth from their daylight habitat several hundred meters uphill. Thus hares actively reverse the normal downhill flow of nutrients in an ecosystem. (Flux and Angermann, 1990; Nowak, 1999)
- Ecosystem Impact
- disperses seeds
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Korean hares are trapped by villagers for food and fur. (Nowak, 1999)
- Positive Impacts
- body parts are source of valuable material
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Korean hares are considered "pests" in agricultural regions because they may forage on crops. They are thought to pose a problem to barley growing near the mountains in Kyeonsnam Province and sometimes girdle fruit trees. (Flux and Angermann, 1990; Nowak, 1999)
- Negative Impacts
- crop pest
There are no known conservation measures in place for this species. It is not known if this species is present in any protected areas. In China, this species has been regionally Red Listed as Least Concern. (Smith and Xie, 2008; Smith, A.T. and Johnston, C.H., 2008)
Korean hares are an example of Bergmann's Rule - where larger species within a genus occur at higher latitudes. Hare species in the far north weigh around 5 kg, most species in temperate regions average 3 kg, and species occurring near the equator are 2 kg or less. However, even within this genus there are exceptions to this rule. (Flux and Angermann, 1990)
Stacy Faigle (author), University of Wyoming, Hayley Lanier (editor), University of Wyoming - Casper, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
active at dawn and dusk
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
- dominance hierarchies
ranking system or pecking order among members of a long-term social group, where dominance status affects access to resources or mates
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
an animal that mainly eats leaves.
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
- induced ovulation
ovulation is stimulated by the act of copulation (does not occur spontaneously)
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
generally wanders from place to place, usually within a well-defined range.
having more than one female as a mate at one time
specialized for leaping or bounding locomotion; jumps or hops.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
- young precocial
young are relatively well-developed when born
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