Long-legged Myotis are distributed throughout much of western North America, from central Mexico to southeastern Alaska and western Canada (Keller, 1987; Nagorsen and Brigham, 1993).
are found in forested regions. They establish roosts in trees, rock crevices, fissures in stream banks, and buildings. Caves and mines are not used in the day, but can be captured there at night (van Zyll de Jong, 1985).
- Terrestrial Biomes
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes alike
- Range mass
- 5 to 10 g
- 0.18 to 0.35 oz
- Range length
- 83 to 100 mm
- 3.27 to 3.94 in
Large nursery colonies, which may number in the hundreds, are formed by this species. These colonies occur most commonly in trees. Mating occurs before the bats enter hibernation in late August or September. Mature females produce one offspring, although it is unknown at what age sexual maturity is reached. Time of parturition varies with latitude. Young are born in late June and July. It is speculated that most juvenile males are sexually active. Banded individuals have been recorded living to 21 years of age (Barbour and Davis, 1969; Nagorsen and Brigham, 1993; van Zyll de Jong, 1985).
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Average lifespan
- 2.1 years
- Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
- Average lifespan
There is little information regarding the habits of. These bats fly more slowly and less erratically than M. lucifugus and M. yumanensis. Adult and young leave maternity colonies in the fall, but nothing is known of their subsequent movements. Although are relatively tolerant of cold temperatures there are no winter records for the species. During the winter hibernation occurs in caves, with males outnumbering females at hibernation sites. Little is known about population structure and dynamics of these bats (Barbour and Davis, 1969; van Zyll de Jong, 1985).
- Key Behaviors
Communication and Perception
Emerging at dusk and staying active throughout the night,takes aerial prey 3 to 4 meters over water, forest clearings, and forest canopy. Their diet consists mostly of moths (75%), but they also feed on termites, spiders, flies, beetles, leafhoppers, and lacewings. The echolocation call consists of a shallow frequency modulated sweep. They are capable of detecting prey at a distance of 5 to 10m. When foraging they follow a repetitive circuit throughout the evening and on consecutive nights (Barbour and Davis, 1969; Nagorsen and Brigham, 1993; Wilson and Ruff, 1999; van Zyll de Jong, 1985).
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
populations act to control insect populations, as do those of other bat species.
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no known negative effects of, though bat populations do sometimes act as disease vectors.
Temperate North American bats are now threatened by a fungal disease called “white-nose syndrome.” This disease has devastated eastern North American bat populations at hibernation sites since 2007. The fungus, Geomyces destructans, grows best in cold, humid conditions that are typical of many bat hibernacula. The fungus grows on, and in some cases invades, the bodies of hibernating bats and seems to result in disturbance from hibernation, causing a debilitating loss of important metabolic resources and mass deaths. Mortality rates at some hibernation sites have been as high as 90%. While there are currently no reports of mortalities as a result of white-nose syndrome, the disease continues to expand its range in North America. (Cryan, 2010; National Park Service, Wildlife Health Center, 2010)
There are four subspecies of, M. volans amotus, occupying the Sierra Transvolcanica Transversal in Mexico, M. volans interior, occuring throughout the central United States and northern Mexico, M. volans longicrus, occuring from southeastern Alaska to western California, and M. volans volans, in peninsular Baja California.
Although this species is relatively widespread, little information exists regarding its biology.
is one of the largest Myotis species.
More knowledge is needed regarding M. volans' breeding biology, winter distribution, and population trends (Allen, 1974; Nagorsen and Brigham, 1993, Wilson and Ruff, 1999).
Melanie Hutchinson (author), University of Toronto.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.
uses touch to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
Banfield, A. 1974. The Mammals of Canada. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.
Barbour, R., W. Davis. 1969. Bats of America. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky.
Cryan, P. 2010. "White-nose syndrome threatens the survival of hibernating bats in North America" (On-line). U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center. Accessed September 16, 2010 at http://www.fort.usgs.gov/WNS/.
Keller, B. 1987. Analysis of the bat species present in Idaho, with special attention to the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. Pocatello: Dept. Biol. Sciences, Idaho st. Univ..
Nagorsen, D., R. Brigham. 1993. Bats of British Columbia. Vancouver: UBC Press.
National Park Service, Wildlife Health Center, 2010. "White-nose syndrome" (On-line). National Park Service, Wildlife Health. Accessed September 16, 2010 at http://www.nature.nps.gov/biology/wildlifehealth/White_Nose_Syndrome.cfm.
Wilson, D., S. Ruff. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Vancouver: UBC Press.
van Zyll de Jong, C. 1985. Handbook of Canadian Mammals. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.