Longnose sawsharks prefer a variety of marine habitats including the open sea and coastal regions. They are typically found at depths below 40 meters. (Compagno, 2006)
- Range depth
- 40 to 310 m
- 131.23 to 1017.06 ft
- Sexual Dimorphism
- female larger
- Range mass
- 18.7 lbs or 8.5 (high) kg
- Range length
- 4.9 ft or 1.49 (high) m
Longnose sawsharks are born in litters of 3 to 22 individuals. They are born with their teeth folded back, which mostly likely is an adaptation to prevent possible injury to the mother during the birthing process. The teeth straighten shortly after birth. Sawsharks are born fully developed, looking like smaller versions of adults. Newborn sawsharks are generally 31 to 34 cm in length. Sawsharks do not undergo a metamorphosis and exhibit determinate growth. (Martin, 2006)
Longnose sawsharks breed seasonally. It is unknown if they are monogamous or promiscuous. It is unknown what affect mating behavior has on social structure.
Longnose sawsharks breed once every two years, and most breeding occurs in coastal areas. Each breeding season yields an average of 10 young (range of 3 to 22). The gestation period for longnose sawsharks is approximately 12 months. Longnose sawsharks are ovoviviparous, meaning that the eggs develop within the mother's body and then hatch within the mother before they are released. (Compagno, 2006)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- Individual longnose sawsharks breed biennially (in alternating years).
- Breeding season
- Longnose sawsharks have a yearly breeding/spawning season.
- Range number of offspring
- 3 to 22
- Average number of offspring
- Average gestation period
- 12 months
- Range time to independence
- 1 to 2 years
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
- 2 years
- Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
- 2 years
In the pre-birth stage, while the young are still within the womb, nourishment and provisioning are provided by the mother. In the post-birth stage, the parents provide food and protection. The exact duration of parental investment is unknown, but it is complete before the individual's next breeding season.
- Parental Investment
- Range lifespan
- 15 (high) years
- Range lifespan
Longnose sawsharks are motile. Little is known about their social structure, but they do form schools. A notable behavior of longnose sawsharks is the use of their snouts (lined with sharp teeth) to side-swipe their prey. Longnose sawsharks are generally sedentary. (Compagno, 2006)
- Range territory size
- Approximately 100 (high) km^2
Longnose sawsharks do not travel extended distances. Even if travelling to breed, their home range rarely exceeds 100 square kilometers. (Hilton-Taylor, 2006)
Communication and Perception
Longnose sawsharks communicate using sight, touch, and electric signals. They perceive their environment with mediocre eyesight, use their barbels to touch the ocean floor, and use their ampullae to sense electrical fields. They communicate with other animals visually and use their barbels and ampullae when searching for prey. (Hilton-Taylor, 2006)
Longnose sawsharks feed on bony fish,including cornet fishes (Fistularia), shrimp, small squids, and various crustaceans. Longnose sawsharks uses their barbels and snout to detect prey on the ocean floor, and then immobilize their prey by hitting it with a side-swipe of their snout, which is lined with sharp teeth.
- Animal Foods
- aquatic crustaceans
The main anti-predator adaptation of longnose sawsharks is their coloration. Their blotchy grey and brown markings help them blend in with the ocean floor. Human beings are the main predator of longnose sawsharks, although larger sharks are occasional predators. Humans have severely damaged shark populations due to commercial fishing. (Hilton-Taylor, 2006)
- Anti-predator Adaptations
Longnose sawsharks are not a keystone species, although their absence would have an impact on creatures living on the ocean floor because they serve as prey for longnose sawsharks. Longnose sawsharks often serve as hosts for tetraphyllidean tapeworms.
- Tetraphyllidean tapeworms (Tetraphyllidea)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Longnose sawsharks are commercially fished for their high-quality meat. (Wikipedia, 2006)
- Positive Impacts
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Longnose sawsharks have no adverse economic impact on humans.
- Negative Impacts
- bites or stings
Effective efforts have been made to protect longnose sawsharks. Commercial fishing of longnose sawsharks has been reduced due to the implementation of a Total Allowable Catch rule. Also, a three mile stretch of Victorian waters have been closed to all shark fishing, which provides some safe habitat for longnose sawsharks. (Hilton-Taylor, 2006)
Tanya Dewey (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Daniel Krcmaric (author), University of Notre Dame, Karen Powers (editor, instructor), Radford University.
- Pacific Ocean
body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. This is the world's largest ocean, covering about 28% of the world's surface.
Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. see also oceanic vent.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
uses electric signals to communicate
union of egg and spermatozoan
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
eats mollusks, members of Phylum Mollusca
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs develop within the maternal body without additional nourishment from the parent and hatch within the parent or immediately after laying.
An aquatic biome consisting of the open ocean, far from land, does not include sea bottom (benthic zone).
an animal that mainly eats fish
- saltwater or marine
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
Compagno, L. 2006. "http://filaman-.ifm-geomar.de/summary/speciessummary.php?id=721.Longnose Sawshark" (On-line). Accessed February 27, 2006 at
Cropp, B. 1964. Shark Hunters. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Fisheries Global Information System, 2006. "Fisheries Global Information System" (On-line). Accessed February 27, 2006 at http://www.fao.org/figis/servelt?Firefservlet.
Hilton-Taylor, C. 2006. "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed February 27, 2006 at http://redlist.org/search/details.php?species=39327.
Martin, A. 2006. "Order Pristiophoriformes: Sawsharks- 8 Species" (On-line). Accessed February 27, 2006 at http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/sharkprofile/pristiophoroformes.htm.
The British Library, 1999. "Southern Australian Shark Fishery Management" (On-line). Accessed February 27, 2006 at www.bl.uk/services/document/edd.html.
Walker, T. 1999. Southern Australian Shark Fishery Management. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 378: 48.
Wikipedia, 2006. "Sawshark" (On-line). Accessed March 23, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sawshark.