After copulation sperm are usually stored in the spermatheca where it is used later for fertilization once the eggs have become mature. After the eggs are fertilized they are oviposited in large masses consisting of about 700 eggs, in some cases deposits of 1100 eggs have been observed. The eggs are deposited in fast flowing water just below the surface on vegetation or other protruding objects. (Crosskey, 1995; Strickland, 1991)
Larval Rhus natalensis bushes, but only the female feeds on blood. Blood feeding by the female occurs using her serrated mandibles, creating a "mini-wound" where blood begins to ooze out. Feeding often occurs in the morning, in the evening, and on cloudy days when there is decreased light intensity and high humidity. (Crosskey, 1995)show little selectivity, feeding on dissolved organic matter, bacteria, diatoms, algae, and animal matter. Both male and female adult feed on nectar, in particular
There is no known economic benefit derived from this species.
Onchocerca volvulus filarial worm, or river blindness parasite that affects humans in Africa. Transmission to humans occurs during feeding of , when the filarial worm travels from the proboscis of the fly into the bleeding wound. River blindness is not fatal, but does cause disfigurement and blindness; approximately 18 million people are infected globally, about 99% of which are in Africa. (Crosskey, 1995)is the primary vector for the
Since 1973, the World Health Organization (WHO) has led the Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) in West Africa. The programs goal is to control the population of (Crosskey, 1995)through the use of insecticide in the savanna regions of West Africa where the Onchcercisis volvulus filarial worm causes the most social and economic damage.
Sara Diamond (editor), Animal Diversity Web.
Kensey Amaya (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Teresa Friedrich (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
particles of organic material from dead and decomposing organisms. Detritus is the result of the activity of decomposers (organisms that decompose organic material).
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats nectar from flowers
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
having more than one female as a mate at one time
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
an animal that mainly eats blood
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
animal constituent of plankton; mainly small crustaceans and fish larvae. (Compare to phytoplankton.)
Biggam, S., F. Wright. 1964. Tropical Diseases. Baltimore, MD: The Williams and Wilkins Company.
Crosskey, R. 1995. The Natural History of Blackflies. West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons Ltd..
Goodwin, L., A. Duggan. 1972. A New Tropical Hygiene and Human Biology. London, England: George Allen and Unwin LTD.
McCall, P., M. Wilson, B. Dueben, B. de Clare Bronsvoort, R. Heath. 1997. Similarity in oviposition aggregation pheromone composition within the Simulium damnosum (Dipter: Simuliidae) species complex. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87: 609-616.
Peters, W., H. Gilles. 1995. Color Atlas of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. Barcelona, Spain: Mosby-Wolfe.
Strickland, T. 1991. Hunter's Tropical Medicine. Philidelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.