Southern blossom bats, unlike most chiropterans, do not roost in a specific centralized location, but instead change roosts daily. They roost individually during the day in the dense foliage of the subcanopy and move to nearby heathlands during the night to feed. Preferred habitat includes tropical moist forests, eucalyptus forests, moss forests, and Melaleuca swamps that are adjacent to heathland-like habitats. Southern blossom bats do not migrate like many other flower bats; instead, they change roosting locations from the rainforest's edge in the winter to the rainforest interior during spring and autumn. It is thought that they do this in order to be closer to their food source during the colder winter months. They can be found from sea level to 3000 m in elevation. ("Common Blossom-bat - Profile", 2005; Helgen, et al., 2011; Law, 1993; Macdonald, 2001)
Southern blossom bats are the smallest known species of Pteropodidae, ranging in size from 40 to 60 mm long, with a wingspan of 72.4 to 92.7 mm and weighing between 18.9 and 20.5 g. The dorsum is covered in light brown to reddish hair, and the venter is slightly lighter colored than the rest of the body. They also have relatively long, rounded ears with no tragi as well as large, black eyes and no tail. Southern blossom bats exhibit the fox-like face shape that is characteristic of members of the family Pteropodidae. Their long, pointed muzzles house a very long, thin tongue with brush-like projections that allows them to pick up nectar and pollen from the flowers they feed on. They have a basal metabolic rate of 4 cm^3 oxygen/hour. Sexual dimorphism has not been documented in this species. ("Common Blossom-bat - Profile", 2005; Geiser and Coburn, 1999; Law, 1992; Macdonald, 2001)
Southern blossom bats form small groups for 2 to 4 weeks in early March and October in order to mate. They produce one offspring per mating period for a total of two offspring per year. The mating system is thought to be a form of resource defense polygyny, in which males defend areas with abundant resources that attract females, as opposed to defending the females themselves. This information is based solely on sex ratios at different locations throughout the year, however, and direct observations of their social behavior is needed. (Geiser, et al., 2001; Law, 1996; Nelson, 1964)
Southern blossom bats are polygynous and form small mating aggregations during early March and October. Males and females identify each other based on sight and the scent glands located on their shoulders. Little is known of the mating behavior of southern blossom bats, however, females give birth to one offspring at a time. Male southern blossom bats do not provide any parental care, leaving the female soon after copulation. Males reach sexual maturity by 1 year old and females reach sexual maturity by 6 to 8 months old. Juveniles are weaned by 6 to 8 weeks of age, at which point they are independent and separate from the mother. (Geiser, et al., 2001; Law, 1993; Nelson, 1964)
Southern blossom bats undergo torpor. Pregnant females also undergo torpor and are able to lower their metabolic rate equal to that of non-pregnant bats, but remain in torpor for half the time of their non-pregnant counterparts. (Geiser, et al., 2001)
The parental care of southern blossom bats is provided solely by females, as males leave soon after copulation. Gestation lasts 3.5 to 4 months and during this time the fetus can account for up to 25% of the mother's body weight. After birth, females carry their young on the venter and nurse for 6 to 8 weeks. By the time weaning is complete, young are completely independent. (Geiser, et al., 2001; Law, 1992)
Southern blossom bats live 2 to 6 years in captivity, with an average of 5 years. Little is known of their lifespan in the wild, though it is generally thought that members of Syconycteris live longer in the wild than they do in captivity. (Macdonald, 2001; Nelson, 1964)
Southern blossom bats are solitary and nocturnal. They roost in the forest subcanopy during the day and forage in nearby heathlands and forests during the night. They change roosts daily, but often visit the same feeding patches for multiple days before moving to another location. Flight patterns are less erratic than in chiropterans of similar size, and they are capable of flying slowly and hovering, allowing them to feed on nectar while in flight. Southern blossom bats undergo torpor, a state of decreased physiological activity similar to hibernation, during colder months. Because they roost individually, they cannot huddle for warmth, and because they roost in the subcanopy, they receive little protection from the local climatic conditions. Thus, going into torpor allows them to save energy by lowering their metabolic rate and reducing their core body temperature. (Altringham, 1996; Law, 1993; Leen and Novick, 1969; Mickleburgh and Racey, 1992)
Evidence from telemetry studies suggests that home range size of southern blossom bats varies by individual, ranging from 0.12 to 17.96 km^2. Often, home ranges include more than one forest fragment. Southern blossom bats usually travel along forest margins, but may fly up to 5.8 km across open ground. (Geiser, et al., 2001; Law and Lean, 1999)
Southern blossom bats, similar to other pteropodids, have excellent visual and olfactory perception, which they use to find the flowers on which they feed. Some flower species have likely co-evolved with southern blossom bats and emit a musty "bat odor" and open only during the night. Little is known of auditory communication, as few studies focus on the vocalizations of southern blossom bats. However, they do use chirps to communicate with conspecifics. Southern blossom bats do not use echoloctaion or any other type of vocalization for navigation. Scent glands on their shoulders are used for identifying individuals during mating, and females identify their offspring by their scent. (Allen, 1939; Altringham, 1996; Nelson, 1964)
Southern blossom bats are nectarivores and feed exclusively on pollen and nectar, which makes them unique among pteropodids. While feeding, they use their long, bristled tongue to extract nectar and pollen. Preferred forage includes pollen and nectar from evergreen flowering plants such as Grevillea pteridifolia, though they feed on many species of tropical plants, including bananas. They do not supplement their diets with additional plant materials or insects, as all of their dietary requirements are met by consuming pollen and nectar, including hydration requirements. (Altringham, 1996; Courts, 1998; Geiser and Coburn, 1999; "ARKive - Common blossom bat", 2011)
Major predators of birds of prey and tree snakes. Additionally, foxes and feral cats sometimes prey on while they feed on low hanging flowers. More studies are needed to identify the major predators of this species. THeir nocturnal lifestyle likely helps reduce risk of predation. (Altringham, 1996; Helgen, et al., 2011; Law, 1993; Phillips, et al., 2001; "ARKive - Common blossom bat", 2011)include
As strict nectarivores, southern blossom bats are important pollinators. Evidence suggests a coevolutionary relationship between southern blossom bats and some of the plants they feed from. For example, the flowers of some plant species omit a musty "bat odor" and only open during the night. A number of plants are pollinated only by southern blossom bats. Law and Lean (1999) indicated that southern blossom bats carry six times more pollen than birds, but spend considerably less time at individual feeding flowers. In comparison to birds, the quality of pollen (defined by the geographic, and therefore genetic, distance moved) carried by southern blossom bats is much greater, as they are more mobile than birds and visit more fragmented landscapes. Syzygium cormiflorum, Grevillea pteridifolia, and certain Musaceae species depend on southern blossom bats for pollination. (Altringham, 1996; Law and Lean, 1999; Law, 1992)
Although little information is available regarding parasites specific to southern blossom bats, known parasites include Toxocara pteropodis, Cyclopodia albertisii, Meristaspis, and Ixodes holocyclus. (Law and Lean, 1999; Law, 1992)
Southern blossom bats are very important in the pollination of many wild and agricultural fruits, such as guavas and bananas. Thus, many farmers throughout this species' geographic range depend on southern blossom bats for their financial well-being. In addition, the structure, distribution, and composition of forests throughout the southern blossom bat's geographic range may significantly depend on pollination by species. Southern blossom bats can also be used as an indicator species, as they have few predators and are relatively intolerant of environmental change. (Law and Lean, 1999; Law, 1992)
There are no known adverse effects of (Hall and Richards, 2000)on humans.
Southern blossom bats are widely distributed and abundant. As a result, they are classified as a species of "least concern" on the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. Coastal development around Fraser Island, Queensland has lead to locally reduced numbers, and inappropriate fire regimes in local heathland habitats have been noted as potential threats, as they lead to reduced flowering in the plant species on which southern blossom bats feed. (Altringham, 1996; Helgen, et al., 2011; Mickleburgh and Racey, 1992; "ARKive - Common blossom bat", 2011)
Seven subspecies of (Mickleburgh and Racey, 1992)are recognized.
Zach Pioch (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Phil Myers (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, John Berini (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
Living in Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea and associated islands.
uses sound to communicate
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
parental care is carried out by females
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats nectar from flowers
active during the night
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
having more than one female as a mate at one time
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
Wildscreen. 2011. "ARKive - Common blossom bat" (On-line). ARKive. Accessed March 14, 2011 at http://www.arkive.org/common-blossom-bat/syconycteris-australis/image-G69287.html.
Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW). 2005. "Common Blossom-bat - Profile" (On-line). Accessed April 06, 2011 at http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10785.
Allen, G. 1939. Bats. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Altringham, J. 1996. Bats: Biology and Behaviour. Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press.
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Geiser, F., D. Coburn. 1999. Field Metabolic Rates and Water Uptake in the Blossom-Bat Syconycteris australis (Megachiroptera). Journal of Comparative Physiology B- Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology, 169/2: 133-138. Accessed March 14, 2011 at http://www.springerlink.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/content/0g60g44nl25bp3wv/fulltext.pdf.
Geiser, F., G. Körtner, B. Law. 2001. Daily torpor in a pregnant common blossom-bat (Syconycteris australis: Megachiroptera). Australian Mammalogy, 23/1: 53-56. Accessed April 07, 2011 at http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=AM01053.pdf.
Hall, L., G. Richards. 2000. Flying foxes: fruit and blossom bats of Australia. Australia: University of New South Wales Press Ltd. Accessed April 07, 2011 at http://books.google.com/books?id=Da6ySizodsAC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=parasites+of+blossom+bat&source=bl&ots=3nB_MJ5COg&sig=T_wUtRnvrOC0P2_swzdZlIGQDII&hl=en&ei=sm-eTfD6EpSltwfTiNGVAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=parasites%20of%20blossom%20bat&f=false.
Helgen, K., L. Salas, L. Hall, G. Richards. 2011. "Syconycteris australis" (On-line). IUCN Red List. Accessed March 14, 2011 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/21185/0.
Law, B. 1992. Physiological Factors Affecting Pollen Use by Queensland Blossom Bats (Syconycteris-australis). Functional Ecology, 6/3: 257-264. Accessed March 14, 2011 at http://www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.umich.edu/stable/2389515?origin=crossref.
Law, B. 1996. Residency and Site Fidelity of Marked Populations of the Common Blossom Bat Syconycteris australis in Relation to the Availability of Banksia Inflorescences in New South Wales, Australia. Oikos, 77/3: 447-458. Accessed April 07, 2011 at http://www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.umich.edu/stable/pdfplus/3545934.pdf.
Law, B. 1993. Roosting and Foraging Ecology of the Queensland Blossom Bat (Syconycteris-australis) in North-Eastern New-South-Wales - Flexibility in Response to Seasonal-Variation. Wildlife Research, 20/4: 419-431. Accessed March 14, 2011 at http://apps.isiknowledge.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/full_record.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=1&SID=1C1cK348H28CIjeJ9jA&page=1&doc=1.
Law, B., M. Lean. 1999. Common Blossom Bats (Syconycteris australis) as Pollinators in Fragmented Australian Tropical Rainforest. Biological Conservation, 91/2-3: 201-212. Accessed March 14, 2011 at http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V5X-3XNK44Y-F&_user=99318&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F1999&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000007678&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=99318&md5=4df10b90adf15e772d9eddcd850ba9b3&searchtype=a.
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Phillips, S., D. Coburn, R. James. 2001. An Observation of Cat Predation Upon an Eastern Blossom Bat Syconycteris australis. Australian Mammology, 23/1: 57-58. Accessed April 07, 2011 at http://www.publish.csiro.au.proxy.lib.umich.edu/?act=view_file&file_id=AM01057.pdf.
Strickler, T. 2000. Home Range of the Southern Blossom Bat, Syconycteris australis, in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Mammalogy, 81/2: 408-414. Accessed March 14, 2011 at http://www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.umich.edu/sici?sici=0022-2372%28200005%2981%3A2%3C408%3AHROTSB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X&origin=ISI.