White-lipped peccaries are distributed from southern Mexico south to Ecuador, and from the Entre Rios in Argentina to the Pacific coast of South America (Mayer and Wetzel 1987).
Tayassu peccari lives in a variety of habitats, including desert scrub, arid woodland, and rain forest. Thickets, limestone caves, and large boulders serve as shelters. Peccaries tend to live close to the place of their birth, and they rarely travel far from a water source. (Mayer and Wetzel, August 12, 1987)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- sexes shaped differently
- Range mass
- 25 to 40 kg
- 55.07 to 88.11 lb
White-lipped peccaries breed year round, breeding seasons vary among subspecies. However, spring and autumn seem to be the most common time for breeding. Females produce litters that range from 1 to 4 young, usually resulting in twins or occasionally triplets. The birth of just one young is less common. The gestation period varies from 156 to 162 days. Young can run within a few hours and accompany their mother 1 day after birth (Mayer and Wetzel 1987).
- Key Reproductive Features
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Average lifespan
- 13.3 years
- Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research
- Average lifespan
White-lipped peccaries are active both day and night, but are primarily nocturnal. They are a nomadic species, always moving in search of food and water. Peccaries are gregarious, their home range is estimate to be between 60 and 200 sq. km. They travel in herds that contain females and males of all ages, females usually dominate the males. Herds can include up to 2000 individuals, but most range from 5 to more than 200 members. This behavior protects them from attacks by their natural predators, the mountain lion (Puma concolor) and jaguars (Panthera onca). It also helps them forage more efficiently. Peccaries use their dorsal scent glands as a means of territorial marking, and to identify group members.
Tayassu peccari communicates with sounds. They make low level vocalizations and teeth clatters depending on the activity. Large active herds produce a constant racket of bellowing, screaming, and loud tooth-clacking, which can be heard for several hundred meters. On the other hand, small groups seem to stay quiet.
Peccaries travel long distances and their presence in a certain area is episodic and unpredictable. They usually visit each area for a few hours or for a day or two, often leaving the ground pocked and churned. Like pigs, these white-lipped peccaries use mud wallows. They are visited again and again if along the same route of travel.
(Mayer and Wetzel 1987).
Communication and Perception
White-lipped peccaries consume many different types of food. Their tooth morphology allows them to consume a wide range of food in the tropical forests, however peccaries eat little meat. Peccaries eat fruit, leaves, roots, seeds, mushrooms, worms (Annelida), and insects. Occasionally, they will consume small vertebrates, such as frogs, snakes, lizards, eggs of birds and turtles, and carrion (Mayer and Wetzel 1987).
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
White-lipped peccaries are an important source of hide and food for hunters in the area. They offer a large amount of protein for a hunter's diet (Mayer and Wetzel 1987).
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
White-lipped peccaries have been known to eat farmers' crops. Crops such as maize, sweet potatoes, manioc, bananas, and sugar cane are frequently eaten (Mayer and Wetzel 1987).
Populations in some areas are stable. White-lipped peccaries have vanished from areas in Mexico and northern Argentina where they once lived. Peccaries are threatened by hunters and by deforestation. In areas where they seem to be disappearing, only herds of fewer than 10 members remain (Mayer and Wetzel 1987).
An odd ritual of grooming is performed by this species. One peccary grooms another's scent glands by rubbing the sides of its head on the other's hindquarters and scent glands. This is not related to sex or age (Mayer and Wetzel 1987).
Rebecca Ann Csomos (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Cynthia Sims Parr (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
Found in coastal areas between 30 and 40 degrees latitude, in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Vegetation is dominated by stands of dense, spiny shrubs with tough (hard or waxy) evergreen leaves. May be maintained by periodic fire. In South America it includes the scrub ecotone between forest and paramo.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
active at dawn and dusk
- desert or dunes
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
- active during the day, 2. lasting for one day.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
generally wanders from place to place, usually within a well-defined range.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
- scrub forest
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
1993. "Mammals Species of the World" (On-line). Accessed December 13, 1999 at http://www.nmnh.si.edu/cgi-bin/wdb/msw/names/query.
Emmons, L. 1990. "Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide". Chicago: UP.
Hall, R., K. Kelson. 1959. The Mammals of North America Volume II. New York: The Ronald Press Company.
Mayer, J., R. Wetzel. August 12, 1987. Tayassu pecari. Mammalian Species, 293: 1-7.
Nowak, R. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, 4th ed.. USA: John Hopkins University Press.