Tetragnatha versicolor

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Geographic Range

Tetragnatha versicolor, a species of long-jawed orb weaver, is found across North America from Alaska and Newfoundland, south to Cuba and Baja California, and into Central America as far as Nicaragua. (Dondale, et al., 2003; Levi, 1981)

Habitat

Tetragnatha versicolor lives in trees and shrubs. This species most often lives near or over fresh water, along streams, around lakes, in swamps and marshes. It is also found in humid forests and meadows away from water, and in agricultural areas if pesticides are not used. It is found in a wide range of elevations, from 520 to 1755 m. (Aiken and Coyle, 2000; Bradley, 2013; Dondale, et al., 2003; Weber, 2003)

  • Range elevation
    520 to 1755 m
    1706.04 to 5757.87 ft

Physical Description

The body of these spiders is slim, 2 to 3 times longer than it is wide. Females are larger than males, with females measuring 5.4 to 13.3 mm in body length, and males measuring 4.3 to 9.2 mm long. Body color varies from pale tan to dark brown, often with dark markings on the abdomen. In some individuals the abdomen has a silvery white stripe or may be almost entirely silvery. The first, second, and fourth pairs of legs are much longer than the body, and the legs range in color from yellow to light brown. The jaws and palps of spiders in this family are quite long. This species can only be distinguished from other species of Tetragnatha by examining microscopic details of its anatomy. Like most spiders, this species has venom glands that it uses to kill its prey. (Bradley, 2013; Dondale, et al., 2003; Howell and Jenkins, 2004)

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • female larger
  • Range length
    4.3 to 13.3 mm
    0.17 to 0.52 in

Development

We have no specific information about development in T. versicolor. Females lay their eggs in silk-covered cases in the summer. Young spiderlings hatch, and shed their skins several times as they grow. The exact number of molts before adulthood is unknown. It is not clear which stage survives the winter in cold climates. Adults are found from early spring through autumn. (Bradley, 2013; Weber, 2003)

Reproduction

Males and females of T. versicolor will mate with multiple partners if given the opportunity. Males likely communicate with prospective mates somehow when they approach, perhaps by vibrating the web, but there is little information available. To initiate mating, males approach the female, usually on the female's web. The pair quickly rush each other, and then interlock their chelicerae. Males transfer their sperm to the female using their palps, and when the transfer is complete, they untangle their chelicerae and leave. (Danielson-François and Bukowski, 2005)

Once a female of this species matures, she will mate with one or more males and start producing egg cases. Mating apparently occurs in late spring and summer in temperate climates, but we have no information about breeding activity in warmer climates. Kaston (1946) reported one case contained 103 eggs, and cites another report of 60 eggs in a case. Related species of Tetragnatha can produces a new egg case every 2 weeks if well-fed. Danielson-François says that females are often found in aggregations, with several males present, so finding a mate may not be difficult. Females store sperm so even one mating may be sufficient to ensure substantial egg production. The exact time to hatching is unknown, but is apparently a few weeks. (Danielson-François and Bukowski, 2005; Kaston, 1946; Weber, 2003)

  • Breeding interval
    Tetragnatha versicolor can mate many times in their lives.
  • Breeding season
    Mating takes place in late spring and summer.
  • Range number of offspring
    60 to 103

Females of Tetragnatha versicolor provide nourishment to the offspring by including yolk in their eggs. They also protect their eggs by gluing them together, enclosing the clutch in silk, and suspending it off the ground in vegetation. Males do not contribute to offspring care. (Bradley, 2013; Weber, 2003)

Lifespan/Longevity

We have no information on the maximum lifespan in Tetragnatha versicolor. Individuals probably can live at least a year, though most probably do not survive that long.

Behavior

Hatchlings of this species can travel through the air by spinning a long thread of silk and holding on to it as it floats on the wind. This is called "ballooning." However, individuals of this species spend nearly their whole lives living in shrubs, trees or other tall vegetation, where they build their webs. Like many related species, they build two-dimensional wheel-shaped webs. For T. versicolor, the web is often tilted more horizontally than vertically, especially if built over water.

These spiders tend to stay in one place as long as they continue to catch prey. Like many spider species, they can eat their webs, and will do so if hunting has not been good. When hunting, T. versicolor individuals lie in wait for prey to be trapped in their web. The spiders either sit in the center of their web, or they will rest on a nearby twig or branch. When resting on a twig, they line their legs and body up with the twig. This makes them hard to see.

If they fall on the water, they can walk quickly on the surface of the water if it is still. (Bradley, 2013; Foelix, 1996; Levi, 1981; Weber, 2003)

Communication and Perception

Like most spiders, T. versicolor has poor vision. It is very sensitive to touch and vibrations in its web. It can also sense humidity in the air, and probably tastes with the palps on either side of its jaws. When attempting to mate, males and females communicate by vibrating the female's web. (Bradley, 2013; Foelix, 1996)

Food Habits

Long-jawed orbsweavers feed mainly on flying insects that they catch in their silken web. They will catch and eat other insects and small arthropods that pass by or are also caught in the web. They build a flat wheel-shaped web. Often the web is more horizontal than vertical. (Bradley, 2013; Dondale, et al., 2003)

  • Animal Foods
  • insects
  • terrestrial non-insect arthropods

Predation

This species avoids predators by being active only at night. During the day it hides in vegetation, and rests with its legs and body lined up along a twig to make it harder to see. If disturbed on the twig or in its web it will quickly drop to escape. It tends to live among very thin branches, where heavier predators cannot easily reach it. Predators of Tetragnatha versicolor include birds, lizards, salamanders, small mammals such as shrews, and jumping spiders. (Bradley, 2013; Foelix, 1996; Weber, 2003)

Ecosystem Roles

We have very little information on the ecosystem roles of this species. It may be a significant predator on flying insects, especially aquatic insects that have emerged from the water to mate and disperse. It also serves as prey to a variety of animals, including birds, lizards, and small mammals. (Bradley, 2013; Weber, 2003)

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Tetragnatha versicolor eats pest insects, including mosquitos and other flies. (Bradley, 2013; Weber, 2003)

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There are no known adverse effects of Tetragnatha versicolor on humans. The species is venomous, but its bite is not known to be harmful to humans.

Conservation Status

This species is common and widespread, and not considered to be in need of special conservation efforts. It is not listed as threatened or endangered.

Contributors

George Hammond (author), Animal Diversity Web Staff.

Glossary

Nearctic

living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map

Neotropical

living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.

World Map

agricultural

living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.

arboreal

Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.

carnivore

an animal that mainly eats meat

chemical

uses smells or other chemicals to communicate

ectothermic

animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature

female parental care

parental care is carried out by females

fertilization

union of egg and spermatozoan

forest

forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.

heterothermic

having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.

insectivore

An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.

internal fertilization

fertilization takes place within the female's body

iteroparous

offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).

marsh

marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.

motile

having the capacity to move from one place to another.

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.

nocturnal

active during the night

oviparous

reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.

polygynandrous

the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.

riparian

Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season

sedentary

remains in the same area

sexual

reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female

solitary

lives alone

sperm-storing

mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.

suburban

living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.

swamp

a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.

tactile

uses touch to communicate

temperate

that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).

terrestrial

Living on the ground.

tropical savanna and grassland

A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.

savanna

A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.

temperate grassland

A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.

venomous

an animal which has an organ capable of injecting a poisonous substance into a wound (for example, scorpions, jellyfish, and rattlesnakes).

vibrations

movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others

visual

uses sight to communicate

References

Aiken, M., F. Coyle. 2000. Habitat distribution, life history, and behavior of Tetragnatha spider species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Journal of Arachnology, 28: 97-106. Accessed February 24, 2014 at http://www.americanarachnology.org/joa_free/joa_v28_n1/arac_28_01_0097.pdf.

Bradley, R. 2013. Common Spiders of North America. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press.

Danielson-François, A., T. Bukowski. 2005. Female mating history influences copulation behavior but not sperm release in the orb-weaving spider Tetragnatha versicolor (Araneae, Tetragnathidae). Journal of Insect Behavior, 18/1: 131-148.

Dondale, C., J. Redner, P. Paquin, H. Levi. 2003. The Orb-Weaving Spiders of Canada and Alaska. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: NRC Research Press.

Foelix, R. 1996. Biology of Spiders, 2nd edition. New York City, New York, USA: Oxford University Press, Inc..

Howell, W., R. Jenkins. 2004. Spiders of the Eastern United States. Boston, MA, USA: Pearson Education, Inc..

Kaston, B. 1946. Spiders of Connecticut. Hartford, Connecticut, USA: State of Connecticut.

Levi, H. 1981. The American orb-weaver genera Dolichognatha and Tetragnatha North of Mexico (Araneae: Araneidae, Tetragnathinae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 149/5: 271-318.

Weber, L. 2003. Spiders Of The North Woods. Duluth, Minnesota, USA: Kollath-Stensaas Publishing.