- Range elevation
- 520 to 1755 m
- 1706.04 to 5757.87 ft
The body of these spiders is slim, 2 to 3 times longer than it is wide. Females are larger than males, with females measuring 5.4 to 13.3 mm in body length, and males measuring 4.3 to 9.2 mm long. Body color varies from pale tan to dark brown, often with dark markings on the abdomen. In some individuals the abdomen has a silvery white stripe or may be almost entirely silvery. The first, second, and fourth pairs of legs are much longer than the body, and the legs range in color from yellow to light brown. The jaws and palps of spiders in this family are quite long. This species can only be distinguished from other species of Tetragnatha by examining microscopic details of its anatomy. Like most spiders, this species has venom glands that it uses to kill its prey. (Bradley, 2013; Dondale, et al., 2003; Howell and Jenkins, 2004)
- Sexual Dimorphism
- female larger
- Range length
- 4.3 to 13.3 mm
- 0.17 to 0.52 in
Males and females of (Danielson-François and Bukowski, 2005)will mate with multiple partners if given the opportunity. Males likely communicate with prospective mates somehow when they approach, perhaps by vibrating the web, but there is little information available. To initiate mating, males approach the female, usually on the female's web. The pair quickly rush each other, and then interlock their chelicerae. Males transfer their sperm to the female using their palps, and when the transfer is complete, they untangle their chelicerae and leave.
- Mating System
- polygynandrous (promiscuous)
Once a female of this species matures, she will mate with one or more males and start producing egg cases. Mating apparently occurs in late spring and summer in temperate climates, but we have no information about breeding activity in warmer climates. Kaston (1946) reported one case contained 103 eggs, and cites another report of 60 eggs in a case. Related species of Tetragnatha can produces a new egg case every 2 weeks if well-fed. Danielson-François says that females are often found in aggregations, with several males present, so finding a mate may not be difficult. Females store sperm so even one mating may be sufficient to ensure substantial egg production. The exact time to hatching is unknown, but is apparently a few weeks. (Danielson-François and Bukowski, 2005; Kaston, 1946; Weber, 2003)
- Key Reproductive Features
- seasonal breeding
- gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
- Breeding interval
- can mate many times in their lives.
- Breeding season
- Mating takes place in late spring and summer.
- Range number of offspring
- 60 to 103
- Parental Investment
- female parental care
We have no information on the maximum lifespan in. Individuals probably can live at least a year, though most probably do not survive that long.
Hatchlings of this species can travel through the air by spinning a long thread of silk and holding on to it as it floats on the wind. This is called "ballooning." However, individuals of this species spend nearly their whole lives living in shrubs, trees or other tall vegetation, where they build their webs. Like many related species, they build two-dimensional wheel-shaped webs. For, the web is often tilted more horizontally than vertically, especially if built over water.
These spiders tend to stay in one place as long as they continue to catch prey. Like many spider species, they can eat their webs, and will do so if hunting has not been good. When hunting,individuals lie in wait for prey to be trapped in their web. The spiders either sit in the center of their web, or they will rest on a nearby twig or branch. When resting on a twig, they line their legs and body up with the twig. This makes them hard to see.
Communication and Perception
- Communication Channels
- Other Communication Modes
Long-jawed orbsweavers feed mainly on flying insects that they catch in their silken web. They will catch and eat other insects and small arthropods that pass by or are also caught in the web. They build a flat wheel-shaped web. Often the web is more horizontal than vertical. (Bradley, 2013; Dondale, et al., 2003)
- Animal Foods
- terrestrial non-insect arthropods
This species avoids predators by being active only at night. During the day it hides in vegetation, and rests with its legs and body lined up along a twig to make it harder to see. If disturbed on the twig or in its web it will quickly drop to escape. It tends to live among very thin branches, where heavier predators cannot easily reach it. Predators of shrews, and jumping spiders. (Bradley, 2013; Foelix, 1996; Weber, 2003)include birds, lizards, salamanders, small mammals such as
We have very little information on the ecosystem roles of this species. It may be a significant predator on flying insects, especially aquatic insects that have emerged from the water to mate and disperse. It also serves as prey to a variety of animals, including birds, lizards, and small mammals. (Bradley, 2013; Weber, 2003)
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
There are no known adverse effects ofon humans. The species is venomous, but its bite is not known to be harmful to humans.
This species is common and widespread, and not considered to be in need of special conservation efforts. It is not listed as threatened or endangered.
George Hammond (author), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
- bilateral symmetry
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
- female parental care
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
- internal fertilization
fertilization takes place within the female's body
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
- native range
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
- seasonal breeding
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
- tropical savanna and grassland
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
- temperate grassland
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
an animal which has an organ capable of injecting a poisonous substance into a wound (for example, scorpions, jellyfish, and rattlesnakes).
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
uses sight to communicate
Aiken, M., F. Coyle. 2000. Habitat distribution, life history, and behavior of Tetragnatha spider species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Journal of Arachnology, 28: 97-106. Accessed February 24, 2014 at http://www.americanarachnology.org/joa_free/joa_v28_n1/arac_28_01_0097.pdf.
Bradley, R. 2013. Common Spiders of North America. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press.
Danielson-François, A., T. Bukowski. 2005. Female mating history influences copulation behavior but not sperm release in the orb-weaving spider Journal of Insect Behavior, 18/1: 131-148.(Araneae, Tetragnathidae).
Dondale, C., J. Redner, P. Paquin, H. Levi. 2003. The Orb-Weaving Spiders of Canada and Alaska. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: NRC Research Press.
Foelix, R. 1996. Biology of Spiders, 2nd edition. New York City, New York, USA: Oxford University Press, Inc..
Howell, W., R. Jenkins. 2004. Spiders of the Eastern United States. Boston, MA, USA: Pearson Education, Inc..
Kaston, B. 1946. Spiders of Connecticut. Hartford, Connecticut, USA: State of Connecticut.
Weber, L. 2003. Spiders Of The North Woods. Duluth, Minnesota, USA: Kollath-Stensaas Publishing.