After emergence, adult cattail mosquitos can be found in forested areas, marshes, or fields, but they prefer a forested habitat. Host-seeking females are usually located about one meter above ground, and do not fly into the forest canopy to seek hosts. They are most active between 10 p.m. and 1 a.m. The mosquito will stay near the ground to find a host. (Bosak, 2002; Bosak, et al., 2001; Carpenter and LaCasse, 1955)will occasionally go after humans during the day in shaded areas. Males are usually found in shaded areas.
The pupae have a cephalothorax with twelve setae present; about nine of the twelve are double. The abdomen has shorter dendritic float hairs that are made of simple setae. The pupae are unique in that they have a similar siphon as the larvae to breath underwater. The opening of the siphon is short, narrow, and designed to puncture aquatic plant tissue. The end of the siphon has a hairy process that detaches before adult emergence. (Darsie, Jr., 1951)
Once a female has mated, she will lay her eggs on the water. The eggs float on the water since they are stuck together in an egg raft. A larva will emerge from the egg, swim down, and attach itself underwater to emergent vegetation. It will slowly go through the larval stages until winter. At that point it will stop developing and overwinter. In spring, the mosquito will continue progressing through its larval life stages until it molts into a pupa then molts into an adult. As an adult, a female (Bosak, 2002; Crans, 2004)will immediately start looking for a mate. Breeding continues throughout the summer since emergence varies from population to population.
There is no parental involvement once the eggs are laid on the water.
The entire lifecycle takes a year. This is unique to (Crans, 2004)since most mosquitos do not overwinter as larvae. Many mosquitoes overwinter as eggs which decreases their lifespan. The majority a life is spent as larvae.
Cattail mosquito larvae and pupae do not stray far from where they first attach, but can swim away if they feel threatened. (Lake County Florida Government, 2007)adults can travel several miles from where they emerge to find a host or a mate.
Larval Cq. perturbans feed on nectar, and only females feed on blood. The females must find a host to injest blood in order to produce their eggs. females mostly feed on birds, humans, and horses. (Bosak, et al., 2001; Merritt, et al., 1990)feeds while attached to emergent vegetation. They are generalist eaters. They eat bacteria, detritus, euglenoid protozoans, and algae. Adult male and female
The cattail mosquito is a bridge vector of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) from birds to humans and horses. They are also hosts as adults to water mites. (Lanciani and McLaughlin, 1989; Spielman and D'Antonio, 2001)
Cattail mosquitos have been used to study eastern equine encephalitis virus. (Carpenter and LaCasse, 1955)
The cattail mosquito is a nuisance for humans, and is a bridge vector for eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), also known as “sleeping sickness”. The females are a particularly aggressive mosquito, so they can be a major annoyance for people spending time outside. Since this mosquito is a human biter and a carrier of EEE, it can transmit EEE to humans. This disease is rare, but is one of the most lethal of the mosquito borne encephalitides with about a 35 % mortality rate. About 35% of survivors will have moderate to severe mental disabilities. About 70 % to 90% of cases are people under 15 years old, or over age of 55. Culiseta melanura. In late summer and early fall when the virus is amplified, a cattail mosquito may feed on an infected bird, pick up the virus, then feed on a human and transmit the virus. Horses, mules, and donkeys can also be affected by this disease if they are bitten by a mosquito carrying the disease. (Bosak, 2002; Bosak, et al., 2001; Carpenter and LaCasse, 1955; Deresiewicz, et al., 1997; Spielman and D'Antonio, 2001)is a bridge vector of EEE. The virus gets amplified by being cyclically transferred from mosquitoes to birds. The most common mosquito that takes part in the cycle is
EEE can have negative economic consequences as well. After an EEE outbreak in New Jersey in 1959, inland hotels had a 45 % to 65 % spike in hotel cancellations, and hotels on the coast lost about two million dollars in revenue. This was due to a decrease in tourism due to the EEE scare. To control (Bosak, 2002), the use of a pesticide called methoprene is used by government agencies and private sector mosquito abatement agencies. Methoprene is a chemical that specifically inhibits the growth of mosquito larvae so the mosquito will not emerge from the water. Government agencies use taxpayer dollars in certain districts in the United States to offset the cost of the material and labor associated with mosquito control.
is a nuisance and a danger to humans. The effort is on trying to control and decrease the population of the cattail mosquito rather than conserve its population.
The genus changed from Mansonia perturbans to.
Katherine Beadle (author), University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point, Christopher Yahnke (editor), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
a wetland area rich in accumulated plant material and with acidic soils surrounding a body of open water. Bogs have a flora dominated by sedges, heaths, and sphagnum.
an animal that mainly eats meat
an animal which directly causes disease in humans. For example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes (elephantiasis and river blindness).
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
an animal that mainly eats decomposed plants and/or animals
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats nectar from flowers
active during the night
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an animal that mainly eats blood
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
uses sight to communicate
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