Araneidae genera. The prosoma of species are covered in long soft hairs, and they have a nearly triangular opisthosoma that tapers posteriorly, as well as spiny legs. Females are typically larger than males, and their epigynum has a short scape fused to curved sclerites that bear two copulatory openings. species are generally small, ranging in size from 4 to 9 mm. Coloration can vary by species, but colors are typically muted yellows, grays, and browns that allow species to blend in with dried foliage during the day. Like most Araneidae, species are mildly venomous, although there are no reports of any humans having been bitten by this reclusive nocturnal genus. (Archer, 1951; Han and Zhu, 2010; Javed, et al., 2016)species have highly diverse morphology. However, there are a few key characteristics that unite the genus and distinguish it from other
Upon maturity, males search for a nearby female with whom to mate. Unsuccessful males do not survive their mating attempt, and even males who succeed in breeding are often eaten by the female immediately after copulation. As such, males generally only mate once, while a female may mate multiple times over her lifetime. (Archer, 1951)
Each female watches over her eggs until they hatch, attaching her egg sac to the underside of a leaf near where she builds her web each night. Once the young hatch, there is no longer any parental investment, and they may be cannibalized by their mother or other spiders in the area. (Yin, et al., 1997)
Araneidae genera, they build a circular web to capture their prey before injecting it with venom and beginning extracorporeal digestion. The most common prey of species are small flying insects, such as Diptera, Orthoptera, and some Hymenoptera species. They also occasionally eat other arachnids that find themselves caught in a web, including smaller individuals of the same species. (Han and Zhu, 2010; Javed, et al., 2016; Mi, et al., 2010)species are sit-and-wait carnivores. Like all other
No specific predators of any Araneidae genera, they are likely primarily preyed upon by bird species. The most significant anti-predator adaptation of species is their behavior of dismantling their webs each morning and remaining hidden during the day when predators are most active. Secondarily, their abdominal shape and coloration allows them to blend in with foliage, making them even more difficult to spot. (Archer, 1951; Han and Zhu, 2010)species are known; However, like other
Eriovixia excelsa in citrus agroecosystems is a control for crop damaging flies. In addition to their role as predators, research has shown silk from species has potential antibacterial effects. This silk can be used to source antibiotics against Streptococcus sp., Pasteurella sp., and Staphylococcus sp. (Keswani, 2014; Tahir, et al., 2019)species serve as important biological controls on pest populations, including agricultural pests and those that carry human diseases. Notably,
There are no known adverse effects ofspecies on humans.
species are not considered protected in any region, and there is no known conservation concern.
A recently discovered Eriovixia gryffindori is so-named because of its striking resemblance to the sorting hat, a magical object from J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter novel series. One synonym for , "Simonarachne," is a patronym honoring the scientist who initially described the group, albeit under a different name. (Javed, et al., 2016)species,
Binyamin Salzano (author), Colorado State University, Genevieve Barnett (editor), Colorado State University.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
a substance used for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
Referring to a mating system in which a female mates with several males during one breeding season (compare polygynous).
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
an animal which has an organ capable of injecting a poisonous substance into a wound (for example, scorpions, jellyfish, and rattlesnakes).
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
uses sight to communicate
breeding takes place throughout the year
young are relatively well-developed when born
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Barrion, A., J. Litsinger. 1995. Riceland Spiders of South and Southeast Asia. Wallingford, UK: CAB International & International Rice Research Institute.
Han, G., M. Zhu. 2010. Taxonomy and biogeography of the spider genus Eriovixia (Araneae: Araneidae) from Hainan Island, China. Journal of Natural History, 44: 2609-2635.
Javed, A., K. Rajashree, J. Sumukha. 2016. A New Species Of Dry Foliage Mimicking Eriovixia Archer, 1951 From Central Western Ghats, India (Araneae: Araneidae). Indian Journal of Arachnology, 5: 24-27.
Keswani, S. 2014. DIVERSITY, POPULATION AND MICROHABITAT USED BY SPIDERS IN CITRUS AGROECOSYSTEM. Indian Journal of Arachnology, 3: 90-101.
Mi, X., X. Peng, C. Yin. 2010. The orb-weaving spider genus Eriovixia (Araneae: Araneidae) in the Gaoligong Mountains, China. Zootaxa, 2448, No 1.: 39-51.
Tahir, H., A. Sattar, S. Qamar, M. Mukhtar, I. Liaqat. 2019. ANTI-BACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF SILK RECOVERED FROM ERIOVIXIA EXCELSA (SIMON, 1889) SPIDER. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 29: 625-628.
Tso, I., A. Tanikawa. 2000. New Records of Five Orb-web Spiders of the Genera Leucauge, Mesida, and Eriovixia (Araneae: Tetragnathidae and Araneidae) from Taiwan. Acta Arachnologica, 49: 125.
Yin, C., J. Wang, M. Zhu, L. Xie, X. Peng, Y. Bao. 1997. Fauna Sinica: Arachnida: Araneae: Araneidae. Beijing, CH: Science Press.