The habitat of yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats is composed of lowland forests with seasonal flooding and within river floodplains. Yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats build their nests in the holes of large trees, especially palms, and live among the canopy. (Emmons and Patton, 2015; Patton, et al., 2000)
Yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats are medium-sized arboreal rodents with a cream-colored patch on the crown of their head, two dark stripes going from forehead to nape of their neck, and a furry tail. Their dark head stripes do not meet behind the ears, marking the difference between Isothrix species. Their body fur is soft and non-spiny, and mostly yellowish-brown with some black hairs grizzled about. Their abdomen is pale yellow and their tails go from rusty golden on the first two thirds of the tail to a dark brown third tip in adults, or a pale yellow termination in juvenile individuals. Their tail hair curls outward, resembling a bottlebrush, and doesn’t cover all tail scales. The mean head and body length is 249 mm, while the mean tail length is 242 mm. With their tail about the same length as their body, the mean tail:body ratio of yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats is about 97%. The specific body weight of has not been reported. However, the mean body weight of their close relatives in the Isothrix genus is 320-570 grams. In other body part measurements, their mean hind foot length ranges from 45-54 mm, their mean ear length ranges from 15-20 mm, and their mean condylo-incisive length is 51 mm. Yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats are often considered adults when cheek teeth are erupted and somewhat worn down. (Emmons and Patton, 2015; Nowak, 1999; Patterson and Velazco, 2008; Patton and Emmons, 1985)and the other
Male yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats have a blunt, short, and wide-grooved phallus. Their baculum is long and narrow. Adult males develop 25 mm midventral chest glands and possess relatively large testes (measuring 24 mm length x 12 mm width) that stay in the abdomen and do not descend to the scrotum. (Emmons and Patton, 2015; Nowak, 1999; Patterson and Velazco, 2008; Patton and Emmons, 1985)
The number of teats in female yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats are three lateral pairs of mammae and one inguinal pair situated by the groin area. Female (Emmons and Patton, 2015; Lacey and Myers, 2005)develop enlarged nipples in adulthood, possibly as a result of sexual maturity and lactation.
The skeletal features most studied on the yellow-crowned brush-tailed are their skull and their teeth. Like other Isothrix species, have a relatively flat, broad cranium with a short, broad rostrum, making them morphologically resemble a squirrel. Their supraorbital ledges extend posteriorly to the parietals, and the interorbital region is broad. Tympanic bullae in are somewhat large, the auditory meatus is near the squamosal bone and is medium-sized, and the auditory tube is short and tilted forward. The mandible of has a strong base composed of well-developed masseter and pterygoid crests. Their masseter and infraorbital arrangement classify as hystricomorphous. (Emmons and Patton, 2015; Patton, et al., 2000; Patton, et al., 2015)
The mating systems of yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats have not been reported, however of the close relatives within the Echimyidae family that have been studied, mostly polygynous mating systems are known to happen. Within Echimyidae, mating systems can be considered facultatively promiscuous, polygynous, or monogamous because they depend on density and home range sizes. (Patton, et al., 2015)
Yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats are known to be sexually mature when all cheek teeth have erupted and have started to wear down, however their specific age of sexual maturity has not been studied. Males and female pairs nest in tree holes, with their breeding season thought to continue year round. The average litter size is thought to be small, around one or two offspring, evidenced by the number of placental scars never being more than two. It is thought (Patton, et al., 2000; Patton, et al., 2015)breed throughout the year.
Parental care in Echimyidae family, like genus Kannabateomys to perform biparental care of their young, meaning that both parents cooperate to take care of their young. (Patton, et al., 2000; Patton, et al., 2015)behavior has not been studied. Captured females accompanied by their offspring suggest relatively high parental investment. It is known for some relatives within the
Specific longevity of yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats has not been studied. However, in a Echimyidae family relative, Proechimys semispinosus, lifespan was found to be a minimum of 6.5-10 months and a maximum of 36-53 months. Lifespan limiting factors have not been studied in . (Oaks, et al., 2008)
Yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats are arboreal and nocturnal. They are solitary individuals. Isothrix genus, including , to be allopatric to their range. (Emmons and Patton, 2015; Patton, et al., 2000; Patton, et al., 2015; Tate, 1931)commonly protrude their heads out during daytime, they appear at the entrance of their tree holes in the afternoon, and come out to forage at night. It is common for all members of the
Home range of yellow-crowned brush-tailed rat individuals has not been documented. However, relatives from the Echimyidae family appear to be minimally territorial, so their home ranges are determined by population density. There also appears to be a difference in territory size between male and female members of the Echimyidae family, with males having relatively larger home ranges, and present fairly extensive home range overlaps within species. is an arboreal species that prefers floodplain areas, so their home range will be limited by the extent of trees located in floodplains. (Adler, 2011; Emmons and Patton, 2015)
Communication of yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats has not been studied. There is no information on social communication, potential mate communication, social rank communication, or resource communication found in the literature. There is evidence of chemical communication and signaling in close relatives of the Echimyidae family, such as the spiny rat Trinomys yonenagae and Proechimys semispinosus, by using scent glands near the anus. Scent recognition is thought to be used by spiny rats. However, the presence of scent glands in have not been documented. The olfactory function of the snout of might allow for scent recognition. (Adler, 2011; Manaf, et al., 2011)
Foraging behaviors of Echimyidae is omnivorous and includes mainly fruits, vegetative plant parts, seeds, fungi, and/or arthropods. (Adler and Kestell, 1998; Patton, et al., 2015; Pinotti, et al., 2011)have not been studied. However, the general diet of their family
There is little available information on predation in yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats. Close relatives, such as the members of the Echimyidae family, are often hunted by humans, smaller primates and spectacled owls Pulsatrix perspicillata, however actual capture and feeding by small primates or spectacled owls on yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats has not been documented. (Patton, et al., 2015)
A possible anti-predator mechanism in relatives of Echimyidae family is tail autotomy, or breaking off of the tail, by the spiny rats of the Proechimys semispinosus species. However, this mechanism has not been documented in . (Mckee and Adler, 2002)within the
There is little available information on the ecosystem roles of yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats. However, an important ecosystem impact of some of their relatives within the Echimyidae family consist of seed dispersal, like in the case of spiny rats Proechimys semispinosus, due to their frugivorous diet. (Adler and Kestell, 1998)
There is little available information on the positive economic impacts of yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats. However, within the Echimyidae family, various species are often hunted or used as laboratory animals. (Suárez, et al., 1995)
Information regarding potential negative economic impacts of yellow-crowned brush-tailed rats on humans has not been documented. Some relatives of Echimyidae family are reservoirs of disease. For example, Tome’s spiny rats Proechimys semispinosus carry cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania chagasi) which can affect humans infected by sand fly hosts. However, parasites or diseases have been studied in . (Travi, et al., 2002)in the
Other relatives of Echimyidae family, under the Rhizomyinae subfamily, affect sugarcane and tapioca crops in Thailand, such as the Atlantic bamboo rat Kannabateomys amblyonyx, however there are no studies on the effects of on crops. (Lekagul and McNeely, 1977)in the
Assessed in 2016 as Least Concern by the IUCN. Although (Patton, 2016)is uncommon, due to specimens being found along a wide range within various protected areas, populations are thought to be stable and at low risk of decreasing their size at an alarming rate.
Angela ChappaLarrea (author), University of Washington, Laura Prugh (editor), University of Washington, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
parental care is carried out by females
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
breeding takes place throughout the year
young are relatively well-developed when born
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