Hooded red-sided opossums (Monodelphis palliolata) reside in areas along the Caribbean Sea, in northern Venezuela and into northeastern Columbia. Their distribution in northern Venezuela is west of the Orinico river, but not much is known about their distribution in Columbia. There is not a numerical estimate of range size, but their current range may be smaller than their historic one, as their populations are continually declining. (Pavan, et al., 2012; Pérez-Hernandez, et al., 2016)
Hooded red-sided opossums primarily live in forests in the South American region of northern Venezuela and northeastern Columbia. They have been found in tropical dry forests, tropical humid forests, premontane and very humid forests, gallery and secondary forests, and plantations. (Pérez-Hernandez, et al., 2016; Ventura, et al., 1998)
Hooded red-sided opossums are a slightly dimorphic species, where males have a head-body-length of about 152 mm while females are about 127 mm. This species has short grey hair with reddish coloring on their sides back legs. (Pavan, et al., 2012)
Hooded red-sided opossums, along with the rest of the order Didelphimorphia are pentadactyl, with a dental formula of 5/4, 1/1, 3/3, 4/4 = 50. They are polyprotodont and didactylous. Hooded red-sided opossums likely have long prehensile tail and an opposable pollices like most others in the order. (Feldhamer, et al., 2015)
Hooded red-sided opossums were, until recently, considered a subspecies of red-legged, short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis brevicaudata). As not much information has been found on hooded red-sided opossums, much of the missing information for this species account will be supplemented with information known about hooded red-sided opossums, since they are the closest known relatives and therefore the two likely have relatively similar features, behaviors, etc. (Pavan, et al., 2012)
Hooded red-sided opossums have an average body mass of 78.84 g and a basal metabolic rate of 68.14 cm^3/hr. (Jones, et al., 2009)
Not much is known about the mating patterns of hooded red-sided opossums. It is possible that they have similar patterns of other species in the family Didelphidae, which are polygynous. (Siciliano Martina, 2013)
This species has a breeding season that occurs from May to August. The onset of fertility of both males and females is around 180 days. Up to 8 offspring have been reported to be born in a single litter, and the average is 7.24. The average number of litters per year for red-legged short-tailed opossums M. brevicaudata is 1.5 and this number may be representative of hooded red-sided opossums as well. Not much is known about the reproduction of hooded red-sided opossums, but since they are marsupials, it can be assumed that gestation is short and that young are fairly underdeveloped at birth, followed by a long lactation period. Gestation periods of species in the family Didelphidae are usually less than 2 weeks and neonates weigh about 0.1 g. After they are born, lactation and weaning periods range from a couple months to a year. Similar to all marsupials, reproduction of this species is timed so that young leave the pouch at times when resources are optimal. (Feldhamer, et al., 2015; Jones, et al., 2009; Pérez-Hernandez, et al., 2016)
Not much is known about parental investment in hooded red-sided opossums. They, along with all other marsupials, have short gestation periods and long lactation periods. Mothers provision offspring with milk and protection after birth and before weaning. Many male individuals of the family Didelphidae are semelparous and die soon after breeding for the first time, so this may be a characteristic of male hooded red-sided opossums, and they would therefore lack paternal investment. (Feldhamer, et al., 2015)
There is no data on the lifespan of hooded red-sided opossums. Though it has been found that maximum longevity of red-legged short-tailed opossums is 3.9 years. (Tacutu, et al., 2017)
Not much is known about the behavior of hooded red-sided opossums. They are terrestrial, semi-arboreal, and crepuscular. Species in the family Didelphidae are generally solitary. (Feldhamer, et al., 2015; Pérez-Hernandez, et al., 2016)
Information is not known about home ranges for hooded red-sided opossums.
Red-legged short-tailed opossums have been reported to have tactile and chemical perception channels and hooded red-sided opossums may share these characteristics. It is assumed that their vision allows for some extent of sight in the dark, as they are crepuscular creatures. Vocalizations of red-legged short-tailed opossums have not been reported but may occur. (Mandavia, 2004)
Dietary information on hooded red-sided opossums is unknown. Most species in the family Didelphidae are opportunistic feeders, with a diet dependent upon seasonal forage availability. Hooded red-sided opossums may have a diet similar to red-legged short-tailed opossums, which are known to have a diet that consists of seeds, shoots, and fruit. Their diet also consists of spiders and insects such as cockroaches and crickets, as well as carrion and some small rodents. (Feldhamer, et al., 2015; Whitfield, 1998)
There is no published data on predators of hooded red-sided opossums. Though opossums in general are prey for the many predators within their habitats, which may include felids (family Felidae), canids (family Canidae), snakes (suborder Serpentes), and birds of prey. (Siciliano Martina, 2013)
Hooded red-sided opossums may regulate levels of certain species upon which they prey. They may also influence the population sizes of their natural predators. Because hooded red-sided opossums feed on fruits and seeds, they may provide a role in seed dispersal. They also feed on decaying flesh and help with decomposition in that way. (Whitfield, 1998)
There are no known positive effects of hooded red-sided opossums on humans.
Humans may benefit from logging and deforestation in the lower elevations of the range of hooded red-sided opossums, outside of their protected areas. If conservation concerns and actions of this species increase, this may pose a threat to the forestry business in the region. They have also been seen in cultivated areas and may interfere with cultivation. (Pérez-Hernandez, et al., 2016)
Hooded red-sided opossums have a population that is continually declining. They are found in multiple protected areas. They are currently listed as a species of "Least Concern", due to their wide distribution and occurrence in several protected areas. Hooded red-sided opossums also are believed to have large populations and are tolerant to some degree of environmental modification. It is unlikely that their populations are declining at the rate required to qualify them as "Threatened".
Kaitlin Huo (author), University of Washington, Laura Prugh (editor), University of Washington, Galen Burrell (editor), Special Projects.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
helps break down and decompose dead plants and/or animals
an animal that mainly eats meat
flesh of dead animals.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
active at dawn and dusk
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
parental care is carried out by females
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
an animal that mainly eats seeds
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
having more than one female as a mate at one time
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
an animal that mainly eats dead animals
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
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