tends to reproduce more in the spring and summer. Reproduction is not common in the winter, as few fowl species are available, and reproduction is not possible without the ultimate host. Also, if bodies of water are frozen, snails that inhabit benthic regions cannot obtain eggs. Oviducts of the ultimate hosts provide a suitable environment for adult during the hosts’ breeding season, and facilitate reproduction. Eggs are typically laid in the spring, and transfer to dragonfly naiads typically occurs during the summer. Asexual reproduction also occurs during the sporocyst stage of development.
Beyond the limited provisioning of eggs, there is no parental investment.
The total lifespan of (Olsen, 1967)is about 80 to 115 days in chickens and about 125 days in ducks. The metacercariae stage is reached after the first 70 days of this period. Metacercariae become adults after about one week in the ultimate host in chickens and three weeks in ducks.
Amnicola is the first intermediate host, and it becomes infected by eating feces from a bird that contains eggs. Inside the snail, daughter sporocysts produce a large number of cercariae that are released into the water to search for their next intermediate host, a dragonfly naiad. They enter a dragonfly through the posterior end of the naiad and are sucked into the dragonfly through the anus. Within the dragonfly, the parasites break through a thin cuticle layer with their stylet. In the muscles of the naiad the parasites encyst as a metacercariae, which are not free moving. When birds consume the dragonfly containing , they too, become infected. The parasite excysts in the infected bird’s small intestine and then travels through the bird until it is excreted, restarting the process. (Macy, 1934; Sullivan, 2007), like other trematode parasites, has multiple hosts. A snail in the genus
Both the intermediate and definitive hosts of (Macy, 1934)give the parasite its ability to live, because it feeds off of its hosts’ body fluids.
There are no known positive effects ofon humans.
When the intermediate hosts come in contact with Fabricius, the oviduct, or the hindgut. There, causes damage to the bird’s organs or even rupture the oviduct. This results in chickens laying eggs without a shell, or even the prevention of their eggs being laid. (Macy, 1934), they become infected, but it is the definitive host that shows signs of real damage. The parasite can be found within the bird’s bursa of
This species does not have any conservation status.
Hanna Berman (author), The College of New Jersey, Alanna Spellman (author), The College of New Jersey, Keith Pecor (editor), The College of New Jersey, Renee Mulcrone (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
reproduction that is not sexual; that is, reproduction that does not include recombining the genotypes of two parents
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
specialized for swimming
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
breeding is confined to a particular season
non-motile; permanently attached at the base.
Attached to substratum and moving little or not at all. Synapomorphy of the Anthozoa
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Brooks, D., E. Hoberg, A. Houtman. 1993. Some platyhelminths inhabiting white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis (Aves: Emberizidae: Emberizinae), from Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada. Journal of Parasitology, 79: 610-612.
Burt, D. 1970. Platyhelminthes and parasitism. London: English Universities Press.
Crompton, D., S. Joyner. 1980. Parasitic worms. New York: Wykeham Publications.
Huffman, J. 2009. Trematodes. Pp. 225-245 in C Atkinson, N Thomas, B Hunter, eds. Parasitic diseases of wild birds. Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell.
John T., S. 2007. A color atlas of parasitology. San Francisco, CA: University of San Francisco.
Macy, R. 1934. Studies on the taxonomy, morphology, and biology of Prosthogonimus macrochis Macy, a common oviduct fluke of domestic fowls in North America. Minnesota: University Farm.
Olsen, O. 1967. Animal parasites: Their biology and life cycles. Colorado: Burgess Publishing.
Permin, A., J. Hansen. 1998. The epidemiology, diagnosis, and control of poultry parasites. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Smyth, J., D. Halton. 1983. The physiology of trematodes, 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sullivan, J. 2007. A color atlas of parasitology. San Francisco, California: Parasitology.