Ring-necked parakeets are mainly found in urban environments like cities. The urban environments potentially provide greater ambient temperatures and greater food availability. They inhabit deserts, savanna and grasslands, forests, and rainforests. (BirdLife International, 2012; Strubbe and Matthysen, 2007)also inhabits wetlands like marshes, swamps, and bogs. Ring-necked parakeets live in agricultural fields as well as all of these other environments.
is a medium sized bird with a body length on average of about 38.1 cm long; however, this number can range from 38-42 cm. It has a body mass of about 137.0 g. These birds have a green body with a reddish beak. They have a rather long pointed tail that is more than half of the body's length. This tail can be up to 25 cm long. The males of this species show a dark purplish color around their necks, giving the ring-necked parakeet its name. The young birds do not show this coloring on their necks, however. They only acquire it once they reach sexual maturity which is about the age of three. The female birds do not have this rose colored ring around their necks.
The rose-ringed parakeet is a seasonal breeder and is monogamous. This means there is one female that mates with one male. In this species, the female actually attracts the male and initiates the mating. She does this by rubbing her head against the males head repeatedly. After this, the mating process only lasts for a few minutes. (Ranjan and Kuswaha, 2013)
is a seasonal breeder that breeds in the winter months of December and January. Rose-ringed parakeets are oviparous, laying eggs in February and March. It is iteroparous, meaning that the bird produces many young each year.
Once the eggs are laid in the nests, the reproductive organs return to a reduced state from April until the next time breeding occurs (December).
Nests are, on average, 640.08 cm off the ground and about 37.8 cm deep. These nests have to be deep enough to hold as many as seven eggs. The rose-ringed parakeet lays on average about four eggs each clutch (range 1-7). Once the eggs are laid, they incubate for about three weeks until the young are hatched.
This species has a high reproductive success, which in turn leads to a high juvenile and adult survival.
Fledging occurs in about seven weeks after hatching. Once these birds reach the age of two years, they are considered to be independent. Males reach sexual maturity at the age of three when they develop the ring around their necks. Female parakeets also reach sexual maturity at the age of three.
The ring-necked parakeet uses a shared roost throughout the year. However, the number of parakeets in the roost during spring decreases dramatically because the female birds stay on the nests while the males return to this roost. (Bulter and Golser, 2004; Krishnaprasadan, et al., 1988; Pithon and Dytham, 1999; Sailaja, et al., 1988; Shwartz, et al., 2009)
This parakeet is altricial at birth. This means it is fairly underdeveloped and fully dependent on its mother for feeding and protection. Parental care of the young ring-necked parakeets seems to come from both parents.
Once the birds mate, both help with nesting. Both the mother and the father take part in feeding their young and defending their nests until the young birds reach the age of independence. (Krishnaprasadan, et al., 1988; Ranjan and Kuswaha, 2013; Strubbe and Matthysen, 2011)
This parakeet species is considered to be a long-lived bird. It is unknown how long the rose-ringed parakeet lives in the wild; however, according to Brouwer et al. (2000), it can live up to 34 years in captivity. Avihepadnaviruses are known the limit the lifespan in many avian species such as ducks, herons, geese, storks, and cranes. A similar virus called parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV) has been found in ring-necked parakeets and is a cause of mortality among theses birds. (Brouwer, et al., 2000; Flower, 1938; Piasecki, et al., 2012)
Rose-ringed parakeets are a secondary cavity nester species, meaning that they use holes already dug out by other species to build their nests in. For example, the rose-ringed parakeet uses nesting holes of the great spotted woodpecker, Dendrocopos major, and the green woodpecker, Picus viridis.
Because of this behavior exhibited by the rose-ringed parakeet, it often has conflicts with native species that use these same sites as their nests. Examples of the conflicting species are the Eurasian nuthatch, Sitta europaea, blue tit, Parus caeruleus, great tit, Parus major, stock dove, Columbia oenas, and the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris. is motile, arboreal, and diurnal, but exhibits a daily torpor. This species is also sedentary and social, living in groups.
Rose-ringed parakeets breed in December and January and the eggs are hatched in February and March. They lay an average of four eggs per clutch. The father and mother birds both take part in caring, protecting, and feeding the young birds for up to 2 years.
Strubbe and Matthysen (2011) found that the rose-ringed parakeets' average home range size was about 751,000 square meters. (Strubbe and Matthysen, 2011)
uses its vision to perceive the environment. Its retinas are well-developed and have two major aspects that allow it to see. The first is a pigmented retina which is beside the choroid layer of the eye. This layer is a relatively simple layer with cells that contain large amounts of melanin. The second major aspect of the retina is a neural retina which is beside the vitreous body in the eye. This part contains rods and cones, as well as seven other layers.
According to Butler et al. (2002), rose-ringed parakeets have a distinctive, rapid ‘kew-kew-kew’ call. The calls of the young are different from the calls of an adult bird. Young rose-winged parakeets call sounds like a ‘yak yak yak’. These birds have a deep ‘krrrr’ call which they use when they feel threatened. They also have a rather soft ‘purr’ call that they use as an aggregative sound. (Butler, et al., 2002; Kotagama and Dunnet, 2007; Sengupta, et al., 2002)
The primary diet of the ring-necked parakeet is seeds and grains, making this bird a granivore. About 80 percent of this bird’s diet is seed-based. This parakeet also eats insects, fruits, and nectar. (Koutsos, et al., 2001)
Rose-ringed parakeets have a few known predators which target the eggs. Gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, prey on the birds' eggs. Crows, owls, snakes, and sometimes humans Homo sapiens, are known nest predators.
The only anti-predator adaptations rose-ringed parakeets have is a soft "purr" sound, which they use to show aggregation. (Shwartz, et al., 2009)
Mammals, reptiles, and birds, including this parakeet, are often infected with a parasite known as Sarcocystis falcatula, a protozoan. The common vectors of this parasitic species include flies and cockroaches. Cray et al. (2005) report that ring-necked parakeets infected with this parasite may die from its effects. (Cray, et al., 2005)
Ring-necked parakeets are sometimes kept as pets. These birds are also used as a source of ecotourism, in the form of bird-watching. In suburban areas, people often spend money buying seeds and birdfeeders to feed ring-necked parakeets. (Bull, 1973; Clergeau and Vergnes, 2011)
Many species of parakeets carry diseases that can be transmitted to humans. Ring-necked parakeets are also viewed to be agricultural pests to farmers. These birds can cause severe damage to crops and grains being stored by farmers. (Meyer, 1940; Strubbe and Matthysen, 2007)
On IUCN Red List, rose-ringed parakeets are listed as a species of "least concern." There is no special status for these birds under CITES appendices, the United States Endangered Species Act list, or the United States Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Rose-ringed parakeets have actually been introduced and can harm native birds. (BirdLife International, 2012; Newson, et al., 2011)
Ashley Flory (author), Radford University, Karen Powers (editor), Radford University, April Tingle (editor), Radford University, Emily Clark (editor), Radford University, Cari Mcgregor (editor), Radford University, Jacob Vaught (editor), Radford University, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
a wetland area rich in accumulated plant material and with acidic soils surrounding a body of open water. Bogs have a flora dominated by sedges, heaths, and sphagnum.
an animal that mainly eats meat
an animal which directly causes disease in humans. For example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes (elephantiasis and river blindness).
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.
humans benefit economically by promoting tourism that focuses on the appreciation of natural areas or animals. Ecotourism implies that there are existing programs that profit from the appreciation of natural areas or animals.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
parental care is carried out by females
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
an animal that mainly eats seeds
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
parental care is carried out by males
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats nectar from flowers
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
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