The striped tree shrew is endemic to Borneo where it is found in Sabah, Sarawak (Malaysia), Brunei, and Kalimantan (Indonesia) except in the south-east. It is native to Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia and Malaysia. However, there has been no recorded species in Sabah in the last twenty years. The striped tree shrew in generally a lowland species. (Han and Stuebing, 2008; Stone, 1995; Wilson, et al., 1998)
The striped tree shrew has been recorded form primary and secondary forests but otherwise little else is known of its habitat preferences. From the few specimens found, they prefer lower altitudes that are near the coast, forests or terrestrial biomes which include mangroves, tropical, subtropical moist broadleaf forests. The geographic range they are found in receive an average of 271.94 mm of precipitation per month and an average temperature of 239.1 degrees Celsius.
The terrestrial biomes where they are found include Borneo lowland rain forest, Borneo peat swamp forest, southwest Bornew freshwater swamp forest, Sunda shelf mangroves, and Indo-Malayan and Sundaland heath forests. (Han and Stuebing, 2008; Stone, 1995; Wilson, et al., 1998)
Striped tree shrews are monogamous. However other species in this genus demonstrate polygyny or polyandry. (Ward Lyon, 1913)
Information on Tupaia tend to bear young at all times of year, however January through July tend to provide the greatest productivity. Females reaches sexual maturity at approximately 45 g and male at 16.8 g. Tupaiad gestation period lasts for 45 to 55 days and then give birth to offspring that generally weigh 6 to 8 g. Offspring is typically two but can range from one to four. Weaning lasts for up to 30 days and then sexual maturity is reached at approximately 2 months when the young are forced out of parental territory.reproduction behavior is lacking, however it is known that the genus
In Tupaidae, females make nests in fallen trees prior to giving birth. The female then gives birth within the nest to provide the young with protection from predators. The young are born naked and their eyes and ears are closed. Shortly after birth, the mother feeds the young milk and then leaves the nest, only returning every 48 hours to feed the young. Each visit is relatively short with young only receiving 5 to 10 milliliters of milk. After four weeks, the young leave the nest with little parental care from mother and no parental care from the father. (Hill, 1965; Lelevier, 2013; Lowther, 2013; Ward Lyon, 1913)
Since striped tree shrews are monogamous, both males and females provide care for the young, with more care provided through lactation. The overall parental care is minimal. (Ward Lyon, 1913)
Not much is known about (Ward Lyon, 1913)specifically, however other tupaia species that are held in captivity don't live very long. Since tree shrews are generally solitary, lifespan in the wild may be relatively short due to the lack of group defense mechanisms.
Specific home range data regarding (Ward Lyon, 1913)is lacking.
Not much information is known about the striped tree shrew, however the genus Tupaia is known to scent mark territories with secretions from glands and with urine. Striped tree shrews are diurnal and so visual cues are important in communication. It is suspected that there is possible vocal and tactile communication especially when mating. Vocal communication is used for alarm, attention, contact and defense. (Lelevier, 2013; Lowther, 2013; Ward Lyon, 1913)
is omnivores. They eat insects, especially flies, crickets, grasshoppers and cockroaches. They also eat fruits, seeds and leaves of plants. They may be seed dispersers due to their fruit eating habits. When eating, they stand up on hind limbs and place the fruit or seed in front of the mouth using the pads of their front limbs.
The digestive tract, similar to other Tupaia species, is made up of a small, simplified stomach, a long, narrow small intestine, and a pouch-like cecum, and smooth large intestine. (Lelevier, 2013; Lowther, 2013; Ward Lyon, 1913; Wilson, et al., 1998)
Predators of tree shrews include snakes, larger carnivorous mammals and raptors. Tree shrews in general react to predation risk by baring teeth and using high pitched vocalizations. (Lelevier, 2013; Lowther, 2013)
The striped tree shrew is not known for any positive economic importance on humans. (Lowther, 2013)
The striped tree shrew is a rare species and is only known form a handful of specimens (about 20-30). It is found in a few protected areas like Lanjak-Entimau Wildlife sanctuary and Gunung Marut National Park and is listed on CITES Appnedix II. Due to the little information on this species there is an absence of information on habitat preferences. According to IUCN, the striped tree shrew is red listed as data deficient due to the limited sitings and few specimens ever found. It is also listed as a lower risk/ least concern however other sites have that the population trend is decreasing and the extinction status is extant.
Major threats that the striped tree shrew has include loss of habitat due to agricultureal expansion and conversion of land to plantations used for oil palm and cutting down of rainforests due to human encroachment. (Han and Stuebing, 2008; Lelevier, 2013; Stone, 1995; Wilson, et al., 1998)
Melissa Miller (author), University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, Christopher Yahnke (editor), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
uses sound to communicate
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
having coloration that serves a protective function for the animal, usually used to refer to animals with colors that warn predators of their toxicity. For example: animals with bright red or yellow coloration are often toxic or distasteful.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
an animal that mainly eats leaves.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
an animal that mainly eats seeds
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
a distribution that more or less circles the Arctic, so occurring in both the Nearctic and Palearctic biogeographic regions.
Found in northern North America and northern Europe or Asia.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
places a food item in a special place to be eaten later. Also called "hoarding"
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
breeding takes place throughout the year
Ankle-Simons, F. 2007. Primate Anatomy. United States: Academic Press. Accessed March 02, 2017 at https://books.google.com/books?id=5fttVRAHA4MC&printsec=frontcover&dq=ankle-simons&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnrcTbrOLTAhUH7IMKHdVqBf4Q6AEILzAC#v=onepage&q=ankle-simons&f=false.
Endo, H., T. Hikida, L. Chou, K. Fukuta, B. Stafford. 2004. Proportion and Cluster Analyses of the Skull in Various Species of the Tree Shrews. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, Volume 66: 1-6. Accessed March 02, 2017 at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14960803.
Han, H., R. Stuebing. 2008. "Tupaia dorsalis" (On-line). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed February 22, 2017 at http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T41493A10468506.en..
Hill, J. 1965. On the Placentation of Tupaia. Journal of Zoology, Volume 146/ Issue 3: 278-304. Accessed May 07, 2017 at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1965.tb05213.x/full.
Hose, C. 1893. A Descriptive Accont of the Mammals of Borneo. London: Harvard University. Accessed March 02, 2017 at books.google.com.
Lelevier, M. 2013. "Animal Diversity Web" (On-line). Tupaia minor. Accessed May 06, 2017 at http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Tupaia_minor/.
Lowther, T. 2013. "Animal Diversity Web" (On-line). Tupaia belangeri. Accessed May 06, 2017 at http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Tupaia_belangeri/.
Stone, D. 1995. Eurasion Insectivores and Tree Shrews: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Cambridge, UK: IUCN. Accessed May 05, 2017 at https://books.google.com/books?id=GgtbBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA62&lpg=PA62&dq=tupaia+dorsalis&source=bl&ots=RDxHvP8zUg&sig=5n1OQwKGVHb03gYofogNTIOaPXU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi5wP6Rtd7TAhVn7oMKHfqqDyQ4ChDoAQg6MAc#v=onepage&q=tupaia%20dorsalis&f=false.
Ward Lyon, M. 1913. Treeshrews: an account for the mammalian family Tupaiidae. University of Michigan: U.S. Government Print Office. Accessed May 08, 2017 at https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=k1JLAAAAMAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=tupaia+dorsalis+geographic+range&ots=RUsz0JQXX-&sig=bm5SJvKpUxfNPkixHovK47V81-U#v=onepage&q=tupaia%20dorsalis%20geographic%20range&f=false.
Wilson, D., T. Orrell, M. Nowak. 1998. "Encyclopedia of Life" (On-line). Tupaia dorsalis. Accessed May 07, 2017 at http://www.eol.org/pages/327850/overview.