The orange-crowned warbler can be found living in trees and shrub in forest or forest like areas such as parks or urban neighborhoods. During the summer breeding seasons, it is mostly found in mountainous forests between 1000 and 3000 m in elevation. In the winter non-breeding seasons, the habitat of the orange-crowned warbler includes open field such as gardens or parks. Research by Kroll et all. (2007) found that the orange-crowned warbler was far more likely to be seen nesting in deciduous trees than evergreen species. (Gilbert, et al., 2010; Kroll, et al., 2007)
The orange-crowned warbler is known to be duller in color than other wood-warbler species. The back, rump, and tail feathers are olive-green, while the breast and belly are a dull yellow with hints of green. The neck and crown is olive-green with a yellow on the throat and around the eyes. The most distinctive feature on the orange-crowned warbler is an patch of orange feathers on the crown. However, the orange patch is often hidden under the more dominant olive-green feathers, making it mostly only seen in adult males. Juvenile (birds who have completed up to their first molt) warbler have feathers smaller in size and are also grayer in color. (Allen, et al., 1983; Foster, 1967; Gilbert, et al., 2010)
The orange-crowned warbler weighs from 9.2 to 10.8 grams with an average weight of 9.8 grams. The species' length is 11 cm to 14 cm with a wingspan between 60-63 mm and an average wingspan of 61.7 mm. The only size difference found between sexes is that female wingspan is ~3 mm shorter. (Gilbert, et al., 2010)
A territorial orange-crowned warbler male will pair with a single female for the breeding season. The male attracts the female to it's territory through song. The song indicates the male is still in search of a partner. The male goes silent after a mate is found.
Once paired, the two warblers follow each other and forage in close proximity. There is no indication that either sex follow the other more frequently. When another song-bird nears the female or the nest, the male confronts the song-bird and chases it away. The female will show no aggression in the presence of an intruder.
The orange-crowned warbler is a seasonal breeder. The female produces one clutch from late April through mid-August. An average clutch size contains between 4 to 5 eggs(maximum=6). The egg is oval in shape, averaging 16.2 mm long and 12.7 mm in diameter. The egg has a white base with scattered red markings. (Bent, 1953)
After hatching, the young warbler weighs an average of 1.5 g (range 1.3 to 1.6 g). After an average of 13 days (range: 10-14), the orange-crowned warbler reaches its fledgling stage. At this stage the young have wing and tail feathers that are developed enough to sustain short flights out of the nest. The parents continue to feed the young a few more days after leaving the nest. In the following year the warbler will be ready to partake in its first breeding season. (Bent, 1953; Foster, 1967; Gilbert, et al., 2010)
The female orange-crowned warbler lays and incubate the eggs. While the female incubates the eggs, the male solely defends territory. During the pre-weaning stage, both the male and the female feed the young for up to 2 weeks until it is fully fledged. (Bent, 1953; Gilbert, 1994)
The orange-crowned warbler lives on average 8.6 years in the wild. The lifespan is represented by recapture age of banded warbler and does not show variation between sexes. The orange-crowned warbler is not kept in captivity. (Lutmerding, 2016)
The orange-crowned warbler is a migratory bird. Its breeding seasons correlate with its migrations. After migrating to the north, a male and female form a pair and produce 1 clutch of eggs. When migrating to the south it spends the majority of its time foraging independently.
During breeding seasons the male orange-crowned warbler establishes a territory by singing. This song will also signal to a female that he is searching for a mate. Once a pair is made it will stay together for the entire breeding season. If an intruder (another song-bird) inters the territory the male will ruffle its feathers making the orange crown visible. Then it will chase the intruding song bird out of its territory.
The male orange-crowned warbler was observed to have a home range around 0.02 km^2. While breeding it does not forage more than 15 m^2 from its nest. protects territory within that range (Gilbert, 1994; Green, 1988)
The orange-crowned warbler is know as a song bird. Its song overall is a high pitched trill that has slight changes to pattern in different situations.The situations depend on if it is perched singing to claim territory or attract a mate. The other situation is when the warbler sings its flight song.
The orange-crowned warbler is omnivorous. Over 90% of their diet consists of caterpillars, arthropods, and other various other insect/larvae. The orange-crowned warbler will opportunistically consume any invertebrates 2.5-15 mm long. The remaining 10% of the diet includes seeds, fruit, and sap. (Gilbert, et al., 2010)
The orange-crowned warbler builds its nest at ground level making its brood easily accessible to small mammals and snakes such as the Santa Catalina Island fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae), and the gopher snake (Pituophis melanoleucus). It does build its nests under cover to protect from aerial prey such as the western scrub jay (Aphelocoma californica). Briskie et al., (1999) found that the decibels(dB) in the begging call used by hatch-lings to to communicate with their parents had a positive correlation with nest predation. Hatch-lings with higher dB calls were far more susceptible to nest predation. The orange-crowned warbler adapted a lower dB begging call than a similar species in the same family the Virginia warbler (Vermivora virginiae) making the orange-crowned warbler less susceptible to predation. (Briskie, et al., 1999; Peluc, et al., 2008)
The orange-crowned warbler is a host to three parasitic lice Ricinus picturatus, Menacanthus, and Philopterus. The louse lays its eggs while still on the parent warbler before the clutch hatches. This is so the new ouse can be ready to transfer to juvenile warbler once hatched. The orange-crowned warbler is also host to three different parasitic protozoa Leucocytozoon, Trypanosoma, and Haemoproteus that are located in the blood. (Foster, 1969a; Foster, 1969b; Gilbert, et al., 2010)
The orange-crowned warbler plays a role in ecotourism. It is one of many species of birds used to attract birdwatchers and other tourists. This is done in the attempt to promote wildlife conservation. (Horwich, 2005)
There are no known adverse economic effects ofon humans
The orange-crowned warbler is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red list. The IUNC Red List indicates that the population is rising. The orange-crowned warbler is also protected under the US Migratory Bird Act. CITES and federal list do not have a special status for the orange-crowned warbler.
Gilbert, Sogge, and Van Riper III (2010), states that the deforestation of large trees such as California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) increases the warbler population due to an increase in the amount of shrub in the area. Increasing the amount of shrub creates more nesting sites for the warbler. However, deforestation in Alaska is destroying the forest understory creating a decline in possible nest sites. It also states that non-native herbivore in California like the feral pig are destroying nesting grounds for the orange-crowned warbler. (Gilbert, et al., 2010)
Joshua Turner (author), Radford University, Cari Mcgregor (editor), Radford University, Zeb Pike (editor), Radford University, Karen Powers (editor), Radford University, April Tingle (editor), Radford University, Jacob Vaught (editor), Radford University, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
uses sound to communicate
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
humans benefit economically by promoting tourism that focuses on the appreciation of natural areas or animals. Ecotourism implies that there are existing programs that profit from the appreciation of natural areas or animals.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
an animal that mainly eats seeds
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
a distribution that more or less circles the Arctic, so occurring in both the Nearctic and Palearctic biogeographic regions.
Found in northern North America and northern Europe or Asia.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
parental care is carried out by males
makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
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