Caiman crocodilus because of its habitat. Caiman crocodilus is the most widespread of the caiman species. Its range is from the Amazon rainforest in northern South America to Argentina. It is the most abundant crocodilian species in South America. (Campos, et al., 2014; Campos, et al., 2015; Ojeda, et al., 2017)is mostly differentiated from
Caiman crocodilus, but since has been classified as its own subspecies. Caimans can be distinguished from alligators by their divided eye ridges. It has brown to red colored scaly skin that is extremely valuable for hunters and poachers. The back of this animal is covered in dermal scutes, reaching up to several centimeters high. Another name for is piranha caiman, because of their crooked teeth. They average about 76 cm for males and 70 cm for females, males being slightly larger and heavier than females. Sexual dimorphism can only be seen in young, as female caimans have much larger heads than males at a young age. Males are born much larger than females. Young also have more distinctive spots along their jaw than adults. (Azevedo and Verdade, 2011; Campos, et al., 2014; Encyclopedia of Life, 2015; Gray, 1862; Kofron and Farris, 2015; Mourão, et al., 1996; Piña, et al., 2007)used to be classified under
Females guard the mound-shaped nests after eggs are laid. Typically, they nest within 200 m of water during the wet season. Clutch size is around 25. The incubation period usually lasts around 60-70 days. During this time, the female may leave the nest for short periods of time, exposing the eggs to predation. Usually, the nests are made on the shore or close by, or on mats of grass floating in the water. Grass mat nests help reduce the risk of predation drastically. (Campos and Mourão, 2014; Campos, et al., 2010; Campos, et al., 2015; Campos, 1993; Ojeda, et al., 2017; Tarris, 2014)
Female caiman yacare tend to guard nests after eggs are laid. After hatching, parental involvement ceases. ("Yacare Caimans", 2005)
The yacare caiman’s lifespan has not been extensively studied, but is estimated around 30 years. It is also estimated that they can live up to 50 years in captivity. ("Yacare Caiman", 2015; Campos, et al., 2014)
Vibrations, dancing and infrasounds are used for both mating displays and communications between yacare caimans. Dancing can include blowing bubbles and slapping water. "Water dances," when infrasound produces water disturbances, have not been exclusively studied for its purpose. No extensive research has been done on the senses of (Kofron and Farris, 2015)
There is little mention of ecosystem roles in the literature, but one can infer its role from its dietary habits. It is a secondary consumer because it consumes snails and fish, but is eaten by larger mammals, like jaguars. It is a heterotrophic carnivore. ("Yacare Caiman", 2015; "Yacare Caimans", 2005; Coutinho and Campos, 1996)
There is nothing present in the literature about negative impacts on humans. (Campos, et al., 2015)lives deep in the jungle, usually hard to reach.
Despite the long history of illegal hunting of ("Yacare Caiman", 2015), their conservation status is set at "least concerned." Before regulations, the status was "threatened," such as on the 1970 US Federal List.
Megan Flanagan (author), University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, Christopher Yahnke (editor), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
a wetland area rich in accumulated plant material and with acidic soils surrounding a body of open water. Bogs have a flora dominated by sedges, heaths, and sphagnum.
an animal that mainly eats meat
ranking system or pecking order among members of a long-term social group, where dominance status affects access to resources or mates
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
eats mollusks, members of Phylum Mollusca
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an animal that mainly eats fish
Referring to a mating system in which a female mates with several males during one breeding season (compare polygynous).
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
mature spermatozoa are stored by females following copulation. Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females.
a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
The term is used in the 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals to refer collectively to species categorized as Endangered (E), Vulnerable (V), Rare (R), Indeterminate (I), or Insufficiently Known (K) and in the 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals to refer collectively to species categorized as Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), or Vulnerable (VU).
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
movements of a hard surface that are produced by animals as signals to others
uses sight to communicate
2015. "Yacare Caiman" (On-line). Conneticut's Beardsly Zoo. Accessed March 25, 2017 at http://www.beardsleyzoo.com/project_category/all-animals/page/8/.
2005. "Yacare Caimans" (On-line). Animal Corner. Accessed April 20, 2017 at https://animalcorner.co.uk/animals/yacare-caimans/.
Azevedo, F., L. Verdade. 2011. Predator–prey interactions: jaguar predation on caiman in a floodplain forest. Journal of Zoology, 286(2): 200-207. Accessed March 20, 2017 at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00867.x/full.
Campos, Z., J. Mourão. 2014. Camera traps capture images of predators of Caiman crocodilus yacare eggs (Reptilia: Crocodylia) in Brazil’s Pantanal wetlands. Journal of Natural History, 49: 977-982. Accessed March 20, 2017 at http://www.tandfonline.com.ezproxy.uwsp.edu/doi/full/10.1080/00222933.2014.930757?scroll=top&needAccess=true.
Campos, Z. 1993. Effect of Habitat on Survival of Eggs and Sex Ratio of Hatchlings of Caiman crocodilus yacare in the Pantanal, Brazil. Journal of Herpetology, 27(2): 127-132. Accessed March 25, 2017 at http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.uwsp.edu/stable/1564927?seq=2#page_scan_tab_contents.
Campos, Z., A. Llobet, C. Piña, W. Magnusson. 2010. Yacare Caiman Crocodiles . Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, 3: 23-28. Accessed May 10, 2017 at http://www.iucncsg.org/365_docs/attachments/protarea/05_C-78894f16.pdf..
Campos, Z., G. Mourão, M. Coutinho, W. Magnusso. 2014. Growth of Caiman crocodilus yacare in the Brazilian Pantanal. PLoS One, 9(2): e89363. Accessed April 12, 2017 at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3938444/.
Campos, Z., G. Mourão, M. Coutinho, W. Magnusson, B. Soriano. 2015. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Reproduction of a Generalist Crocodilian, Caiman crocodilus yacare, in a Seasonally Flooded Wetland. PLoS One, 10(6): e0129368.. Accessed March 03, 2017 at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4481102/.
Carreira, L., O. Sabbag. 2015. Economic aspects of production of Caiman crocodilus yacare. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 87(1): 495-502. Accessed April 15, 2017 at http://www.scielo.br/pdf/aabc/v87n1/0001-3765-aabc-87-01-00495.pdf.
Coutinho, M., Z. Campos. 1996. Effect of Habitat and Seasonality on the Densities of Caiman in Southern Pantanal, Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 12(5): 741-747. Accessed March 26, 2017 at https://www.jstor.org/stable/2559977?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.
Crocodile Specialist Group, 1996. "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed February 03, 2017 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/46586/0.
Encyclopedia of Life, 2015. "Caiman Yacare" (On-line). Accessed May 10, 2017 at http://eol.org/pages/795539/details#size.
Gray, J. 1862. A synopsis of the species of Alligators. Journal of Natural History, 10(59): 327-331. Accessed February 16, 2017 at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00222936208681333?journalCode=tnah09&.
Kofron, C., P. Farris. 2015. Infrasound production by a yacare caiman Caiman yacare in the Pantanal, Brazil. Herpetology Notes, 8: 385-387. Accessed March 20, 2017 at http://www.biotaxa.org/hn/article/viewFile/10993/14651.
Mourão, G., M. Coutinho, Z. Campos. 1996. Size structure of illegally harvested and surviving caiman Caiman crocodilus yacare in Pantanal, Brazil. Biological Conservation, 75(3): 261-265. Accessed April 12, 2017 at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006320795000763.
Ojeda, G., P. Amavet, E. Rueda, P. Siroski, A. Larriera. 2017. Mating System of Caiman yacare (Reptilia: Alligatoridae) Described from Microsatellite Genotypes. Journal of Heredity, 108(2): 135-141. Accessed April 16, 2017 at https://academic.oup.com/jhered/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jhered/esw080.
Piña, C., A. Larriera, P. Siroski, L. Verdade. 2007. Cranial sexual discrimination in hatchling broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris). Iheringia. Série Zoologia, 97(1): 17-20. Accessed February 15, 2017 at http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0073-47212007000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en.
Tarris, J. 2014. "Jami Tarris Photo's" (On-line image). Accessed April 15, 2017 at http://jamitarris.photoshelter.com/image/I0000OwHQRRGVh5w.