The black-horned capuchin is so named because of two distinct patches of black fur on the top of the head. The fur on its back is a mix between black and dark brown, while their belly is a shade lighter. On the face, this species has white fur around its cheeks with black fur on the lateral sides of the face. (Alfaro, 2007; Eisenberg, 1989; Estrada, et al., 2006), like all species of the capuchin, has a prehensile tail for grasping onto branches and limbs and navigating throughout the forest. The average weight of the black-horned capuchin ranges between 2.0-3.3 kg. The head and body length averages from about 32-55 cm, while the average length of the tail is 35-50cm. Males tend to range in length from around 45-55cm because of larger heads and bodies compared to the females., Juveniles do not look different from adults in terms of coat color, except for growth in size and weight; the fur will remain the same colors.
The black-horned capuchin can mate year-round but is generally confined to early December until late April. The female’s pregnancy lasts for an average of 150 days, and will most likely be only one offspring. Females will wait at least 2 years until they breed again. When the offspring is born, the mother will take complete care of it until it is independent. Sexual maturity and independence is reached around four years for females and eight years for males. A newborn capuchin averages1.15 kg and is usually ceases growing by its third year. (Di Bitetti and Janson, 2001; Kinzey, 1989; Thompson and Georgiev, 2014)
This capuchin species is known to have an extensive personality with a variety of facial expressions, which are used to communicate. It is also capable of grooming itself and others strengthening the bond between the two animals. For instance, a mother will groom its child as a form of nurturing. When foraging, this species will scream, whistle, and bark to communicate with its troop. Black-horned capuchins are color-blind, but this allows them to overcome the difficulty of finding camouflaged insects and other defensive tactics used by prey such as mimicry. Males will mark their own fur with urine, a signal to the females that the males are ready to mate. The female capuchins vocalize interest when ready to mate. Males will then begin screaming to show dominance and claim its companion. (Kinzey, 1989; Wheeler, 2010)
The black-horned capuchin is an omnivore with a main part of its diet including mostly fruits such as berries, seeds, and even leaves. This species has the ability to use tools and hands in order to peel fruits and to access shelled protected nuts. When both fruits and nuts are unavailable, (Gomes and Bicca-Marques, 2011; Kinzey, 1989; Miller, 2002)also eats young frogs or birds, insects, and even the eggs of birds and amphibians. For example, treefrogs in Family Hylidae are commonly preyed on by the black-horned capuchin. AUTHORS (year) report the diet of the black-horned capuchin consists of about 50 to 75% fruits and nuts, 25 to 35% animals, and 7% other plants and shrubs.. Foraging for food is an all-day activity, occupying 70% of the day, from sunrise to late evening. This duty can be a loud and disturbing process between cracking nuts open and calling others for help, attracting other monkeys and even other predators such as jaguars, << Panthera onca>>, and hawks, << Harpia harpyja>>. Because of this, this species will seek food in groups known as troops, to provide protection while also covering more ground through the trees, raiding nests, and turning over rocks to find potential food.
Panthera onca), harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja), cougars (Puma concolor), jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi), coyotes (Canis latrans), tayras (Eira barbara), pythons (Pythonidae), anacondas (Eunectes murinus), American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus). The alpha male will vocalize with a whistling sound to alert his troop. This whistling tells the troop to run and take cover, while assembling the other males to fight off the predator. The black-horned capuchin often makes false alarm calls when no predators are nearby. (Janson, et al., 2014)is very alert and aware of its surroundings and will look out for members of its troop. When a predator is spotted such as jaguars (
is important for the ecosystem due to its dispersal of seeds throughout the rainforest. The black-horned capuchin disperses seeds when foraging for food, this in turn helps regenerate forest life.
The black-horned capuchin is also a host to many parasitic cells. The roundworm (Microfilaria panamensis) will attach itself within the fur of the species into order to spread offspring. Another parasite is acanthocephalan (Prosthenorchis) which will lodge itself in the saliva of this species, and can harm the bowels. Toxoplasma gondii, is another parasite that can cause harm to the black-horned capuchin, although the signs of infection vary in different cases from diarrhea to small blood smears. (Keller Marques da Costa Flaiban, et al., 2008; Kinzey, 1989; Wright, et al., 2015)
The black-horned capuchin is commonly hunted and used for bush meat. This species is also kept as a pet in some households and used in public zoos for breeding and research purposes. (Kinzey, 1989; Sabbatini, et al., 2006)
The black-horned capuchin will raid the sugar canes and pine farms on local plantations. This results in a loss of profit for the local businesses. This species also has been known to be a carrier for rabies. If scratched, bit, or come in direct contact with the infected saliva to an open wound, the rabies will spread. (Bos Mikich and Liebsch, 2015; Kinzey, 1989; Puglia Machado, et al., 2012)
is listed as “Near Threatened” according the IUCN Red List and is on Appendix ll of CITES. Appendix II grants access to trade the species but maintains the amount. If needed, the Appendix II gives permission to trade look alike species, in order for protection.
A major contributing threat is hunting and poaching. Humans track and kill these animals for money, trophies, and fur and bush meat. Besides hunting, there is deforestation, which removes suitable habitat from the capuchins’ geographic range. There are a number of protected areas of the rainforest that prohibit any hunting, poaching, or deforestation. The largest protected park is Iguazu National Park, which is located in Argentina and Brazil. This could probably be better developed, especially if a species is near threatened – look around for more info about conservation measures (Fragaszy, et al., 2004; Kinzey, 1989)
Nate Welch (author), Radford University, Cari Mcgregor (editor), Radford University, Zeb Pike (editor), Radford University, Karen Powers (editor), Radford University, April Tingle (editor), Radford University, Jacob Vaught (editor), Radford University, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal which directly causes disease in humans. For example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes (elephantiasis and river blindness).
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
ranking system or pecking order among members of a long-term social group, where dominance status affects access to resources or mates
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
parental care is carried out by females
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
associates with others of its species; forms social groups.
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
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