Due to its secretive nature little is known about the reproductive habits of ("Chitra indica", 2015; "Narrow-headed Softshell Turtle", 2015; Aryal, et al., 2010; Ernst, et al., 2015; Indraneil and Shailendra, 2009). However, females must come onto sandy beaches in order to excavate holes and lay clutches of eggs.
The parental investment of (Indraneil and Shailendra, 2009)is limited to provisioning occurring both before and during fertilization and the act of laying and burying the fertilized eggs. After the laying of an individuals eggs is uninvolved in the rearing of its offspring.
Little is also known about the average life expectancy of ("Narrow Headed Softshell Turtle (Chitra indica)", 2015; "SGNP taxidermist preserves rare turtle", 2015). Although specimens in captivity have lived past 70 years and it has been reported that they can live up to 140 years old in the wild.
There is currently no known research on the home range of.
Predation of adult (Lowe, et al., 2009)by other animals is not well documented. However, eggs and hatchlings are subject to predation by humans, jackals as well as monitor lizards.
Indian narrow-headed turtles are predators of fish and other aquatic invertebrates and hatchlings may be predated by monitor lizards and jackals. Chitra chitra may be subject to parasitism by members of Pentastomida (parasitic invertebrates). ("SGNP taxidermist preserves rare turtle", 2015; Divers and Mader, 2005; Indraneil and Shailendra, 2009; Lowe, et al., 2009)has also been known to feed on carrion and dead carcasses. Besides this, relatively little is known of the role of in their ecosystem. There are no known parasites of , however, the closely related
Despite high reproduction rates, ("Appendices I, II and III", 2015; "Chitra indica", 2015; "Find Endangered Species", 2015; "Michigan's Special Animals", 2015; Indraneil and Shailendra, 2009; Rhodin, et al., 2011)is listed on the IUCN Red List and in the Schedule II of the Indian Wildlife Act of 1972 as Endangered. This status is likely due to extensive human predation and exploitation, as well as the continued degradation and encroachment of habitat. In response to this, the government of India has initiated several conservation projects on the Ganga river system. Both the animals themselves as well as their nesting grounds are protected from exploitation. However greater monitoring and control of the illegal trade of this species is necessary to further protect . Upgrading the species to Schedule I of the Indian wildlife act as well as protection under wildlife laws of countries such as Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh would help the conservation efforts of . Due to the difficulty of maintaining this species in captivity, conservation efforts should focus on hatch-and-release programs and the reduction of mortality in mature individuals.
Kyle Hanus (author), University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, Christopher Yahnke (editor), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
uses sound to communicate
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
helps break down and decompose dead plants and/or animals
an animal that mainly eats meat
flesh of dead animals.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
a substance used for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
Animals with indeterminate growth continue to grow throughout their lives.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
eats mollusks, members of Phylum Mollusca
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
an animal that mainly eats fish
an animal that mainly eats dead animals
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
uses sight to communicate
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Rhodin, A., A. Walde, B. Horne, P. Van Dijk, T. Blanck, R. Hudson. 2011. "Turtles in Trouble: The World’s 25+ Most Endangered Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles-2011" (On-line pdf). Accessed April 17, 2015 at http://www.turtlesurvival.org/storage/documents/top_25_turtles_in_trouble_2011.pdf.
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