Pangolins are one of the most highly trafficked mammals in the world, causing all of the extant species to be endangered or critically endangered (Gaubert et al., 2017; Katuwal, Sharma, and Parajuli, 2017; Shepherd et al., 2017). There are four extant species in genus Manis crassicaudata, Manis culionensis, Manis javanica, and Manis pentadactyla (Cabana et al., 2017; Gaubert et al., 2017; Thapa 2013). (Cabana, et al., 2017; Gaubert, et al., 2017; Katuwal, et al., 2017; Shepherd, et al., 2017; Thapa, 2013):
Current evolutionary understanding of relationships within the order Pholidota support only 1 main group: family Manidae. Manidae can be divided into 2 subgroups: Asian pangolins and African pangolins. African Pangolins consist of 2 genera that are closely related to each other (Gaudin, Emry, and Wible, 2009). species constitute the Asian pangolins. (Gaudin, et al., 2009)
Research on synapopmorphies specifically in relation to Pholidota does. Gaudin, Emry, and Wible reported the following as being synapomorphies in their morphological analysis from 2009: transverse width of dorsal surface of lateral cuneiform roughly equal to proximodistal height; fibular facet of astragalus crescent-shaped, with concavity facing proximoplantarly; manual and pedal subungual processes form triangular platform in ventral view, with grooves along either side of subungual processes leading to subungual foramina; obturator foramen small, maximum diameter of acetabulum ≥75 % that of obturator foramen; prominent ischial spine; temporal lines absent; basicranial/basifacial axis reflexed; teeth absent; horizontal ramus of mandible shallow, ≤10% of maximum mandibular length (Gaudin, Emry, and Wible, 2009). (Gaudin, et al., 2009)species does not exist, but research on synapopmorphies within order
Manis crassicaudata are 84 to 122 cm long (including tail) with a tail length of 33 to 47 cm. Manis crassicaudata are 10 to 16 kg (Mahmood et al., 2013; Mahmood et al., 2012). (Mahmood, et al., 2012b; Mahmood, et al., 2013)
Manis javanica are 75 to 121 cm long (including tail) with a tail length of 35 to 56 cm. Manis javanica are up to 10 kg (Schlitter, Wilson, and Reeder, 2005; Shepherd and Shepherd, 2012). (Schlitter, et al., 2005; Shepherd and Shepherd, 2012)
The breeding habits ofspecies have not been studied extensively. Much is unknown in regards to how species find, attract, and defend mates. How mating behaviors affect social structure is also unknown.
Manis crassicaudata have been observed sharing the same burrow with a mate and offspring, even though species are usually solitary. Females give the majority of parental care (Mahmood et al., 2016). (Mahmood, et al., 2016)
Manis crassicaudata appear to mate annually, from July to October. On average 1 to 2 offspring are produced after a gestation period of about 80 days (Mahmood et al., 2016). Newborns weigh 235 to 400 g and measure about 30 cm at birth (Mohapatra and Panda, 2014). Manis crassicaudata reach sexual maturity around 2 years (Mahmood et al., 2016). (Mahmood, et al., 2016; Mohapatra and Panda, 2014)
Manis javanica appear to breed year-round; typically producing 1 offspring after a gestation period of about 6 months. Offspring are precocial and juveniles are weaned at about 4 months. Manis javanica reach sexual maturity from 6 months to 1 year (Zhang et al., 2017; Zhang et al., 2015) (Zhang, et al., 2015; Zhang, et al., 2017)
Much is unknown about the degree of parental investment inspecies.
Female Manis crassicaudata appear to invest more in offspring than male Manis crassicaudata; females have been observed carrying and protecting offspring (Mahmood et al., 2016). (Mahmood, et al., 2016)
Information about the lifespan ofspecies is unknown.
species do not have a known hierarchical structure.
g. Leptogenys species: long sharp claws and strong forelimbs (Ashokkumar et al., 2017), an elongated tongue for probing, and fibrous hair and keratinized scales that protect from bites and stings (Mahmood et al., 2012; Mahmood et al., 2013; Schlitter, Wilson, and Reeder, 2005; Shepherd and Shepherd, 2012). (Ashokkumar, et al., 2017; Mahmood, et al., 2012b; Mahmood, et al., 2013; Schlitter, et al., 2005; Shepherd and Shepherd, 2012)species are insectivorous, specifically adept in myrmecophagy. These species have several adaptations that allow them to be successful predators of
Homo sapiens, Lycaon pictus, Panthera pardus, Panthera tigris, and Pythonidae species (Tenaza, 1975; Thapa, 2013). There are no known difference in the way species react to different predators. (Challender, et al., 2014; Tenaza, 1975; Thapa, 2013; Wang, et al., 2016)species curl into a ball when threatened (Wang et al., 2016). This protects them from predators since only their hardened, keratinized scales are left exposed. species may also climb into trees as a last resort to avoid predation. (Wang et al., 2016; Challender et al., 2014). Predators of include:
There are no known adverse effects ofspecies on humans.
The only available hypothesis for the etymology of the name Manis comes from the Latin word Manes, meaning spirits. Although, this hypothesis is contradictory to the feminine way Linnaeus appeared to name this genus because Manes is a plural and masculinized word for spirits (ITIS, 2017). (ITIS, 2017)
Mea Escobedo (author), Colorado State University, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
active at dawn and dusk
a substance used for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease
humans benefit economically by promoting tourism that focuses on the appreciation of natural areas or animals. Ecotourism implies that there are existing programs that profit from the appreciation of natural areas or animals.
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
parental care is carried out by females
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
Referring to a burrowing life-style or behavior, specialized for digging or burrowing.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
parental care is carried out by males
Having one mate at a time.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
found in the oriental region of the world. In other words, India and southeast Asia.
the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets.
chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
breeding is confined to a particular season
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
digs and breaks up soil so air and water can get in
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
breeding takes place throughout the year
young are relatively well-developed when born
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