Little collared fruit bats are mainly found in forests. They have been captured deep within the forest and in the forest's edge, many of these captures have occurred at the canopy level. They have also been found in wooded savannas; however, this may be largely due to wet season migrations. Little collared fruit bats have also been observed on farmlands and in gardens located near and within cities. They may be found at medium to low altitudes, but they are typically considered a lowland species. (Cosson, 1995; Fahr and Ebigbo, 2004; Fraser, et al., 2012; King and Dallimer, 2010; Mickleburgh, et al., 2012; Mickleburgh, et al., 1992; Nowak, 1994; Rodriguez, et al., 2006; Watts, 1970)
Little collared fruit bats do not show any significant sexual size dimorphism, males tend to weigh 40 g and have a total body length of 112 mm, whereas females typically weigh 34 g and have a total body length of 102 to 105 mm. The differences observed in an individual's size and fur are associated with their age. These bats have unique hairs that resemble the texture of a pinecone. These hairs are thought to be involved with scent dispersal. In addition, these bats have a ring of course hairs around their neck, which extends onto their chest. Little collared fruit bats have variable coloration. Their upper body often ranges from light- to dark brown, but they may also be red- or yellow brown in some cases. Males have a collar of course hairs around their neck that ranges in color from olive to yellow. Little collared fruit bats resemble Angolan fruit bats, especially as juveniles or young adults; however, little collared fruit bats have a much shorter forearm and a hairless distal area on their tibia and webbed hind-foot toes. (Bergmans, 1980; Brian, et al., 1987; Hood, 2000; King and Dallimer, 2010; Lavrenchenko, et al., 2004; Norberg and Rayner, 1987; Nowak, 1994; Rodriguez, et al., 2006; Thorn and Peterhans, 2009; Watts, 1970)
Little collared fruit bats exhibit year long reproduction. Further research on their mating systems is needed, however, several of their close relatives are polygynous and some are polygynandrous (promiscuous). Their close relatives use vocal calling and wing flapping to attract mates. (Krutzsch, 1979; Nowak, 1999)
The breeding season of little collared fruit bats reportedly lasts from July until March. Breeding may last longer, but it is heavily dependent on the climatic conditions experienced during the dry season. Little collared fruit bats undergo two birthing periods, the first of which lasts from approximately August to September and the second lasts from approximately February to March. Males migrate into the savannas during the wet season while the females are pregnant. Females have been observed lactating from November to May. Further research is needed on their reproductive behavior; however, several of their close relatives become sexually mature at the age of two or earlier. In these closely related species, females generally give birth to a single pup and lactating females may feed their young for up to seven months. After weaning, the young may stay with their mothers for four additional months. (Mickleburgh, et al., 1992; Nowak, 1994; Nowak, 1999)
The only groups of little collared bats that have been reported roosting together are females with their offspring. Males migrate away and are not involved with their offspring. Further research is needed on their parental investment, however, in their close relatives; lactating females may feed their young for up to seven months. After weaning, the young may stay with their mothers for four additional months. (Mickleburgh, et al., 1992; Nowak, 1999; Radhakrishna, 2005)
Further research is needed on the lifespan of little collared fruit bats; however, their close relatives have lived for nearly 30 years in the wild and in captivity. (Nowak, 1999)
Little collared fruit bats are arboreal; they are also a nocturnal, non-hibernating species. These bats roost solitarily. Males migrate to the savannas during the wet season. Further research is needed on their behavior. (Cosson, 1995; Fraser, et al., 2012; Mickleburgh, et al., 1992; Nowak, 1994; Radhakrishna, 2005)
There is currently little information available regarding the home range size of little collared fruit bats.
Little collared fruit bats have gland hairs that resemble pine-cones. These hairs are thought to be involved with scent dispersal. Further research is needed on their communication and perception; however, their close relatives are known to use visual, chemical, tactile and acoustic perception channels. (Brian, et al., 1987; Mickleburgh, et al., 1992)
Little collared fruit bats are primarily frugivorous. In some locations, they specialize on the fruits of genus Solanum. During the wet season, when little collared fruit bats migrate, they have been observed feeding on the fruits of shea trees (Vitellaria paradoxa), which are at their peak fruiting at that time. These bats have also been observed eating bananas (Musa) and they have been captured near guava (Psidium guajava) and mango (Mangifera indica) trees. Additionally, they have been reported visiting the flowers of fountain trees (Spathodea campanulata), kapok trees (Ceiba pentandra) and tree beans (Parkia roxburghii). (Cosson, 1995; Djossa, et al., 2008; Mickleburgh, et al., 1992)
Further research is needed on the predation of little collared fruit bats. Their close relatives may be preyed upon by birds, mammals, snakes and lizards. (Juste and Ibañez, 1994; Mickleburgh, et al., 1992)
Little collared fruit bats are used as a host by the mite species Binuncus myonycteris. Likewise, Hepatpcystis perronae is a parasite found in their hepatocytes (liver cells). (Landau, et al., 2012; Uchikawa, 1986)
Humans hunt and consume little collared fruit bats, providing a source of food and income; however, these bats are a likely natural reservoir of the Ebola-virus. Further research and education about the bats and their migratory patterns is therefore important for human health. (Juste and Ibañez, 1994; Leroy, et al., 2009)
Little collared fruit bats are a likely natural reservoir of the Ebola-virus. (Leroy, et al., 2009)
Little collared fruit bats are a species of least concern; nevertheless, they are affected by habitat destruction. (Mickleburgh, et al., 2012)
Jordon Krall (author), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Christopher Yahnke (editor), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Leila Siciliano Martina (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in sub-Saharan Africa (south of 30 degrees north) and Madagascar.
uses sound to communicate
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal which directly causes disease in humans. For example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes (elephantiasis and river blindness).
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.
parental care is carried out by females
union of egg and spermatozoan
A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
an animal that mainly eats fruit
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
active during the night
the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females.
having more than one female as a mate at one time
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
uses touch to communicate
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.
breeding takes place throughout the year
Djossa, B., J. Fahr, E. Kalko, B. Sinsin. 2008. Fruit Selection and Effects of Seed Handling by Flying Foxes on Germination Rates of the Shea Trees, A Key Resource in Northern Benin, West Africa. Ecotropica, 14: 37-48.
Fahr, J., N. Ebigbo. 2004. Rapid survey of bats (Chiroptera) in the Forêt Classée du Pic de Fon, Guinea. Pp. 69-77 in J McCullough, ed. A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Forêt Classée du Pic de Fon, Simandou Range, South-eastern Republic of Guinea. Washington, DC: Conservation International.
Fraser, E., L. McGuire, J. Eger, F. Longstaffe, M. Fenton. 2012. Evidence of Latitudinal Migration in Tri-colored Bats, Perimyotis subflavus. PloS one, 7/2: e31419.
Hood, C. 2000. Geometric Morphometric approches to the Study of Sexual Dimorphism in Mammals. Hystrix, 11/1: 77-90.
Juste, J., C. Ibañez. 1994. Bats of the Gulf of Guinea islands: faunal composition and origins. Biodiversity & Conservation, 3/9: 837-850.
Krutzsch, P. 1979. Male reproductive patterns of non-reproductive bats. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 56/1: 333-344.
Landau, I., J. Chavatte, G. Karadjian, D. Chabaud, I. Beveridge. 2012. The Haemosporidian Parasite of Bats with Description of Sprattiella alectogen. nov., sp. nov.. Parasite, 19/2: 137-146.
Lavrenchenko, L., S. Kruskop, P. Morozov. 2004. Notes on the Bats (Chiroptera Collected by the Joint Ethiopian-Russian Biological Expedition, with Remarks on Their Systematics, Distribution, and Ecology. Bonner Zoologische Beitrage, 52: 127-147.
Leroy, E., A. Epelboin, V. Mondonge, X. Pourrut, J. Gonzalez, J. Muyembe-Tamfum, P. Formenty. 2009. Human Ebola Outbreak Resulting from Direct Exposure to Fruit Bats in Luebo, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2007. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 9/6: 723-728.
Mickleburgh, S., A. Hutson, W. Bergmans, J. Fahr. 2012. "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/14099/0.. Accessed March 02, 2013 at
Mickleburgh, S., A. Hutson, P. Racey. 1992. Old World Fruit Bats: An Action Plan for their Conservation. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Norberg, U., J. Rayner. 1987. Ecological Morphology and Flight in Bats (Mammalia; Chiroptera): Wing Adaptations, Flight Performance, Foraging Strategy and Echolocation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 316/1179: 335-427.
Nowak, R. 1994. Walker's Bats of the World. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Radhakrishna, S. 2005. Midnight's children: Solitary primates and gregarious chiropterans. Current Science, 89/7: 1208-1213.
Rodriguez, R., F. Hoffmann, C. Porter, R. Baker. 2006. The Bat Community of the Rabi Oilfield in the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas, Gabon. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington, 12: 423-428.
Thorn, E., J. Peterhans. 2009. Small Mammals of Uganda: Bats, Shrews, Hedgehog, Golden-moles, Otter-tenrec, Elephant-shrews, and Hares. Bonn, Germany: ZFMK. Accessed February 20, 2013 at http://www.zoologicalbulletin.de/BzB_Volumes/BzM_55/BZM_55_small.pdf.
Watts, C. 1970. Effects of Supplementary Food on Breeding in Woodland Rodents. Journal of Mammalogy, 51/1: 169-171.