The larval period for Tabanidae will usually molt right after hatching occurs. However, this process has been seen to take a few days in . (Orminati and Hansens, 1947; Schwardt, 1931; Whitcomb, et al., 1997)is about 48 days. larvae are usually pale white in color, although other colors such as light yellow or pink have been observed. The length of the larval stage is quite short and may only last a month. Larvae reside mostly in the mud of ponds. go through 8 to 10 larval stages or instars. The larvae of most
There is little available evidence of parental investment for.
Under laboratory conditions, female flies may survive 4 or 5 days without a source of carbohydrates. Others, who are provided carbohydrates may survive up to 42 days. (Wilson, 1967)
There is little available information about the home range of.
cattle, horses, mules, and humans. They usually will feed from about 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. Although blood meals are required for successful reproduction, females who cannot obtain blood meals may still live just as long as those who do. Therefore, is can be assumed that carbohydrates are what keeps alive rather than nutrients in blood. (Whitcomb, et al., 1997; Wilson, 1967; Woodring and Leprince, 1992)feeds on both the blood of its hosts as well as plant nectar. Only females feed on blood, which is primarily used for oviposition and the development of eggs. Their digestive systems are unique and are able to store the ingested sugar and blood separately. Adults will feed on blood by cutting through their hosts' skin and suctioning out a blood meal. Common hosts include
When reared in captivity, larvae are known to feed on various foods. They appear to prefer snails, worms, and the abdomen of crustaceans. However, when larvae are about to transform between instars during development, they experience a time of complete rest where the will refuse any food. (Schwardt, 1931)
This species acts as a parasite to both domesticated animals, such as hogs, horses, and mules, as well as humans. At every stage of its life, (Magnarelli, et al., 1986; Orminati and Hansens, 1947; Weiner and Hansens, 1975)serves as prey to a wide variety of other organisms. Adults of this species are also potential pollinators for local plants, due to their mainly nectivorous diet.
In addition to acting as a parasite, there has also been occurrences of Elaeophora schneideri). Although third stage larvae of this species have been found to infect , the prevalence is quite low. are also hosts for bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma. They most likely acquire these bacteria through their environment as it is passed to other flies at common feeding sites that contain carbohydrates like honeydew or tree sap. This association may allow humans to control populations using spiroplasmas. (Couvillion, et al., 1986; French, et al., 1997; Wedincamp, et al., 1997; Whitcomb, et al., 1997)being the infected host for the larvae of arterial worms (
does not appear to have any beneficial effects on humans.
Diana Kaplan (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Heidi Liere (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, John Marino (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Barry OConnor (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Rachelle Sterling (editor), Special Projects.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds.
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
an animal that mainly eats nectar from flowers
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water.
breeding is confined to a particular season
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
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