Documented observation of various species of tabanid development is limited; however, known information regarding other species in the genus Tabanus can provide useful insight into the life history of . Eggs, which are deposited in layers on rocks or vegetation overhanging water, hatch in an average of seven days but can mature faster in warmer temperatures and slower in colder temperatures. All eggs in a mass usually hatch at the same time, and the larvae wiggle off their perch and into the water below, where they dig down into the substrate and remain until emerging as pupae. Most tabanid larvae persist for one to three years and pupae for about two weeks. Larvae are a whitish color, and pupae are yellowish. (Hays, 1956; Hine, 1903)
Mating occurs very soon after emergence as an adult in tabanids. In some species of horse flies in the genus Tabanus, males will frequent the tops of hills or wooded areas that are known for the presence of females. These males will present themselves alone or in small groups and hover near the ground or plant life waiting for a female to fly by. When she does, the male will pursue her, most likely to be rejected. If she is of the same species and does not reject the copulation, they will mate for an average of 30 minutes before feeding. This pairing happens during warm, clear weather and only once for some documented species of female tabanids. (Teskey, 1990; Thornhill and Alcock, 1983; Yuval, 2006)
After mating and taking a blood meal, females oviposit on surfaces like rocks or plants overhanging water sources. Males often rest on nearby vegetation during the process of oviposition. (Hine, 1903)
Tabanids remain near sources of water. (Krčmar and Mikuška, 2012)
Female tabanids are attracted to dark, moving objects and emissions of carbon dioxide as these help them identify potential hosts. Visual cues are also used to identify mates, as male flies hover about and chase after females that they see fly past. (Horvath, et al., 2010)
Larval horse flies use piercing mouthparts to consume small, soft-bodied organisms in the water. Adult females take blood meals usually from the legs of horses and cattle. (Askew, 1971; Cobb and Balsbaugh, 1976; Hine, 1903; Merritt, et al., 2008; Mohamed-Ahmed and Mihok, 2009; Smith, et al., 1970)occasionally feeds on humans, though it is not as common for this species of horse fly. Blood meals are used for the production of eggs in females, but adult males consume the nectar of flowers.
Larval horse flies consume small, soft-bodies organisms in their aquatic habitats. Adult females are parasitic and must take blood meals from large mammals before reproducing. As nectar feeders, males may play a small role in pollinating the flowers from which they feed. Tabanus. (Carn, 1996; Hine, 1903; Merritt, et al., 2008)also serves as prey to a variety of animals, including birds and other insects. Some wasp species are parasites on the eggs of many horse fly species in the genus
There is no known positive effects ofon humans.
Due to their frequent tendency to bite mammals, horse flies are known vectors of disease like Hog Cholera Virus (HCV) in livestock and anthrax in humans. Due to the pain caused by their bites, mammals react by removing the pest, and tabanids are free to victimize other organisms with the blood of the first host still on their mouthparts. The decline in livestock has negative consequences for human agriculture and can cause significant economic loss. (Askew, 1971; Carn, 1996)
There is no special conservation status for.
Heather Williams (author), University of Michigan Biological Station, Brian Scholtens (editor), University of Michigan Biological Station, Angela Miner (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.
living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.
living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal
Found in coastal areas between 30 and 40 degrees latitude, in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Vegetation is dominated by stands of dense, spiny shrubs with tough (hard or waxy) evergreen leaves. May be maintained by periodic fire. In South America it includes the scrub ecotone between forest and paramo.
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
mainly lives in water that is not salty.
An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants.
having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
A large change in the shape or structure of an animal that happens as the animal grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis.
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
an animal that mainly eats nectar from flowers
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
an organism that obtains nutrients from other organisms in a harmful way that doesn't cause immediate death
light waves that are oriented in particular direction. For example, light reflected off of water has waves vibrating horizontally. Some animals, such as bees, can detect which way light is polarized and use that information. People cannot, unless they use special equipment.
"many forms." A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. The term only applies when the distinct groups can be found in the same area; graded or clinal variation throughout the range of a species (e.g. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. Polymorphic characteristics may be inherited because the differences have a genetic basis, or they may be the result of environmental influences. We do not consider sexual differences (i.e. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Polymorphism in a local population can be an adaptation to prevent density-dependent predation, where predators preferentially prey on the most common morph.
Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream).
an animal that mainly eats blood
breeding is confined to a particular season
remains in the same area
offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc.), after which the parent usually dies. Semelparous organisms often only live through a single season/year (or other periodic change in conditions) but may live for many seasons. In both cases reproduction occurs as a single investment of energy in offspring, with no future chance for investment in reproduction.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
one of the sexes (usually males) has special physical structures used in courting the other sex or fighting the same sex. For example: antlers, elongated tails, special spurs.
living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.
that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).
Living on the ground.
A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.
A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.
A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.
living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.
uses sight to communicate
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