Coleodactylus brachystoma, Coleodactylus elizae, Coleodactylus meridionalis, Coleodactylus natalensis, and Coleodactylus septentrionalis). A sixth species, Chatogekko amazonicus, was formerly attributed to this genus but has recently been identified as being polyphyletic and is now recognized as its own genus (Chattogekko), a sister taxon to all other genera in the family Sphaerodactylidae (Gamble er al., 2011). The miniaturized morphology (maximum snout-vent length = 27.4mm) of species in allows them to occupy ecological niches uninhabited by other lizard species, utilizing tiny prey items which are abundant and not eaten by other vertebrates (Lisboa, Sales, and Freire, 2012). However, due to their small size, they compete with a variety of invertebrate species and are predated on by larger lizards and frogs (Vitt et al., 2005). When threatened, Goias geckos (C. brachystoma) will expose their orange ventrum by folding their tail over their body, mimicking local scorpions. This is one of few known examples of invertebrate mimicry by vertebrates (Brandão and Motta, 2005). (Brandão and Motta, 2005; Gamble, et al., 2011; Lisboa, et al., 2012; Parker, 1926; Vitt, et al., 2005)is a genus of small South American geckos that consists of 5 species (
C. septentrionalis, which can also be found in Guyana, Venezuela, and western Suriname (Vitt et al., 2005). It is possible that C. meridionalis is present in low numbers in Bolivia, but these claims are not confirmed (Langstroth, 2005). The geographic ranges of the 5 species in overlap with each other very little, likely due to intraspecific competition. (Freitas, et al., 2011; Geurgas, et al., 2008; Gonçalves, et al., 2012; Langstroth, 2005; Lisboa, et al., 2012; Ribeiro, et al., 2013; Vitt, et al., 2005)is distributed entirely withing the Amazon rainforest, east of the Andes. Most species have ranges within north-eastern Brazil. The only species partially distributed outside of Brazil is
Sphaerodactylidae. There are no synonyms for the genus. The most notable change in the systematic history of the genus is the creation of the new genus Chatogekko for Chatogekko amazonicus (previously Coleodactylus amazonicus) after phylogenetic studies revealed the species was misattributed to and is not even the most closely related genus. Two species, C. meridionalis and C. brachystoma, had previously been attributed to other genera (Sphaerodactylus and Homonota, respectively) before being updated and renamed in . (Gamble, et al., 2011; Gonçalves, et al., 2012; Parker, 1926; Uetz, et al., 2021)is the family
Sphaerodactylidae by a unique combination of diagnostic characteristics. The characteristics include each claw being covered by an asymmetric ungual sheath composed of exactly five scales, smooth dorsal scales, and a nasal process separating nasals which is relatively short as compared to related genera (Gamble et al., 2011). The only exception to these diagnostic criteria is C. elizae which only has four ungual scales on its 4th digit (Gonçalves et al., 2012). (Gamble, et al., 2011; Gonçalves, et al., 2012; Uetz, et al., 2021)is made up of five species of miniaturized geckos. Species in the genus have cylindrical bodies which range in length from approximately 20mm to 28mm (Uetz, Hallermann, and Hosek, 2021). Individuals vary in dorsal coloration from light brown to black, with some species possessing white or light pink spots. The genus can be differentiated from other closely related genera in the family
As an adaptation for predator defense, C. brachystoma has a pale orange ventral surface and a tail shape and length that is similar to syntopic scorpions to allow for mimicry of scorpions when threatened (Brandão and Motta, 2005). (Brandão and Motta, 2005)
There is currently no recorded information onmating systems in the literature.
Coleodactylus meridionalis and Coleodactylus natalensis both have recorded clutch sizes of a single egg and can lay several clutches in a single year (Lisboa, Sales, and Freire, 2012). In the only observed hatching of C. natalensis the egg was incubated for 41 days after collection and the hatchling was 11mm in length. No other information on reproduction in this genus is currently available in the literature. (Lisboa, et al., 2012)are oviparous reptiles.
There is no specific information on ("Coleodactylus", 2021)parental investment in the literature. However, most gecko species exhibit little to no parental investment after the female lays the eggs. It would be reasonable to presume similarly low levels of parental investment in until more information is available.
Coleodactylus brachystoma tails have an orange ventral surface, allowing this behavior to double as Batesian mimicry of sympatric scorpions. (Brandão and Motta, 2005; Gamble, et al., 2011; Vitt, et al., 2005)are diurnal geckos that are active throughout the day. They locomote by either walking or leaping from leaf to leaf. They are passive thermoregulators and do not bask. Individuals in the genus are solitary and no significant social structure or interaction has been observed. All species are capable of tail autotomy (voluntarily dropping and regrowing tail) and frequently use this as a predator avoidance technique. When threatened, they move very slowly and shyly and will fold their tails over their backs to entice a predator to attack the tail, which is then dropped so the gecko can run away.
Hexapoda), arachnids (class Arachnida), and crustaceans (subphylum crustacea). The species in who's feeding ecology has been studied in the most detail is C. natalensis. The diet of C. natalensis is most significantly composed of isopods (order isopoda) and spiders (order araneae), but has been observed consuming prey from at least 18 separate arthropod taxa. Males and females of C. natalensis do not differ significantly in terms of total number or volume of prey items consumed, but females take advantage of a wider range of prey types than males do. Coleodactylus septentrionalis also predates on a wide range of arthropod prey, but shows a larger preference for termites (order Blattodea), grasshoppers, and crickets (order Orthoptera). also eats insect eggs and their own shed skin. avoids accidental consumption of toxic arthropods, such as certain sympatric ants, by use of a well developed chemosensory system. (Lisboa, et al., 2012; Vitt, et al., 2005)is an insectivorous genus of pygmy geckos. Owing to their small size, they can take advantage of tiny prey items that are ignored by most other insectivorous competitors in their range. Their diet consists mostly of insects (subphylum
For C. brachystomata, the behavior of flipping the tail over the body when threatened has additional anti-predatory advantages. The underside of C. brachystomata's tail is orange in color, allowing the geckos to resemble sympatric scorpions in this posture. This evidence suggests that the defensive posture doubles as a Batesian mimicry defense in this species in addition to the increased effectiveness of caudal autotomy. (Brandão and Motta, 2005)
There are no adverse effects ofon humans.
The name "Coleodactylus" is derived from the Latin roots "coleo" meaning sheath and "dactyl" referring to the toes. The name is descriptive of the ungual sheath which is used to diagnose the species. The species C. natalensis, C. meridionalis, and C. septentrionalis are named after the geographic range of each species, while C. brachystoma is derived from Latin roots meaning "short mouth" and C. elizae is named after Eliza Maria Xavier Freire, a Brazilian researcher who has contributed a significant portion of the current knowledge on the genus. (Gonçalves, et al., 2012; Uetz, et al., 2021)
Keith Mauerman (author), Colorado State University, Audrey Bowman (editor), Colorado State University.
living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.
uses sound to communicate
having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
an animal that mainly eats meat
uses smells or other chemicals to communicate
having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect.
animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature
union of egg and spermatozoan
forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.
An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders.
fertilization takes place within the female's body
imitates a communication signal or appearance of another kind of organism
having the capacity to move from one place to another.
the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.
specialized for leaping or bounding locomotion; jumps or hops.
reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female
uses touch to communicate
Living on the ground.
the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.
uses sight to communicate
young are relatively well-developed when born
2021. "Coleodactylus" (On-line). Encyclopedia of Life. Accessed March 12, 2022 at https://eol.org/pages/83281.
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Gamble, T., J. Daza, G. Colli, L. Vitt, A. Bauer. 2011. A new genus of miniaturized and pug-nosed gecko from South America (Sphaerodactylidae: Gekkota). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 163(4): 1244-1266. Accessed February 12, 2022 at DOI:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00741.x.
Geurgas, S., M. Rodrigues, C. Moritz. 2008. The genus Coleodactylus (Sphaerodactylinae, Gekkota) revisited: A molecular phylogenetic perspective. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 49: 92-101. Accessed February 12, 2022 at DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.05.043.
Gonçalves, U., S. Torquato, G. Skuk, G. Araujo Sena. 2012. A new species of Coleodactylus Parker, 1926 (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae) from the Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil. Zootaxa, 3204: 2030. Accessed February 12, 2022 at DOI:10.11646/ZOOTAXA.3204.1.2.
Langstroth, 2005. Adiciones probables y confirmadas para la saurofauna boliviana. Kempffiana, 1(1): 101.
Lisboa, C., R. Sales, E. Freire. 2012. Feeding ecology of the pygmy gecko Coleodactylus natalensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. ZOOLOGIA, 29(4): 293-299. Accessed February 12, 2022 at doi: 10.1590/S1984-46702012000400002.
Lisboa, C., P. Sousa, L. Ribeiro, E. Freire. 2008. Coleodactylus natalensis (NCN). Clutch size; hatchling size.. Herpetological Review, 39: 221. Accessed February 26, 2022 at https://www.academia.edu/37328576/Coleodactylus_natalensis_NCN_Clutch_size_Hatchling_size.
Oliveira, C., G. Brabosa, I. Campos, M. Guarnieri, S. Ribeiro. 2017. Predation on Coleodactylus meridionalis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae) by Ctenus rectipes (Araneae: Ctenidae) in the Atlantic Forest, northeastern, Brazil. Herpetology Notes, 10: 221-223.
Oliveira, C., I. Campos, D. Provete, M. Guarnieri, S. Ribeiro. 2020. Defensive behaviour and tail autotomy in Coleodactylus meridionalis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae). Journal of Natural History, 54:33-34: 2209-2218. Accessed March 27, 2022 at 10.1080/00222933.2020.1840641.
Parker, H. 1926. The neotropical lizards of the genera Lepidoblepharis, Pseudogonatodes, Lanthrogecko, and Sphaerodactylus, with the description of a new genus.. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 17:99: 291-301. Accessed February 02, 2021 at 10.1080/00222932608633413.
Ribeiro, L., M. Gogliath, R. Rodrigues, R. Barreto, E. Freire. 2013. Two new records of Coleodactylus meridionalis (Boulenger, 1888) (Squamata, Sphaerodactylidae) in north-eastern Brazil, including a map and comments regarding its geographical distribution. Herpetology Notes, 6: 23-27.
Sousa, P., E. Freire. 2010. Coleodactylus natalensis (NCN). Predation.. Herpetological Review, 41: 218.
Uetz, P., J. Hallermann, J. Hosek. 2021. "Coleodactylus" (On-line). The Reptile Database. Accessed February 26, 2022 at https://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/search?search=coleodactylus&submit=Search.
Vitt, L., S. Sartorius, T. Avila-Pires, P. Zani, M. Esposito. 2005. SMALL IN A BIG WORLD: ECOLOGY OF LEAF-LITTER GECKOS IN NEW WORLD TROPICAL FORESTS. Herpetological Monographs, 19: 137-152.