DidelphidaeAmerican opossums and opossums


Didelphidae is the largest family of marsupials in the Americas and the only family in order Didelphimorphia; it represents 19 genera and 95 species. These animals have fairly diverse modes of locomotion including terrestrial, arboreal, scansorial and semi-aquatic. Although members of family Didelphidae may range from 10 g to over 2 kg, their size and physical diversity may be limited by their early developmental requirements. These animals are characterized by their long rostrum, low body, well-developed sagittal crest and polyprotodont incisors; their very generalized body plan is considered ancestral for metatherians. Didelphids can have a chromosomal diploid number of 14, 18 or 22, although 22 is most common. (Astua, 2009; Carvalho, et al., 2002; Feldhamer, et al., 2004; Gardner, 2008)

Geographic Range

Family Didelphidae has a wide geographic range throughout the Nearctic and Neotropical zones. These animals can be found throughout North, Central and South America and may also be found on the surrounding continental shelf and Caribbean islands. The northernmost species, Virginia opossums, are the only extant didelphid found north of Mexico. Since the arrival of Europeans, Virginia opossums have expanded their northern range into southwestern Ontario, Canada. The southernmost species, Patagonian opossums, are found into Santa Cruz, Argentina. (Cuaron, et al., 2012; Feldhamer, et al., 2004; Gardner, 2008; Pearson, 2008)


Didelphids can be found in a wide range of habitats. These animals may survive in dry environments, tropical forests, grasslands, mountains, temperate forests and near human settlements. In some cases, human settlement may even facilitate range expansion. Virginia opossums have expanded into southern Canada since European settlement, partially due to the increased shelter and food provided by human habitation. Likewise, other species such gray four-eyed opossums and common opossums may supplement at least part of their diet with garbage produced by humans. Although these animals may survive in a wide variety of habitats, their northward expansion is limited by cold temperatures and deep snows. These animals may be found from sea level up to 3,400 m in elevation. (Castro-Arellano, et al., 2000; Cuaron, et al., 2012; Feldhamer, et al., 2004; Harmon, et al., 2005; Kanda, 2005; O'Connell, 2006; Reid, 2009)

Systematic and Taxonomic History

The first documented interaction between Europeans and marsupials occurred in 1500 AD when a southern opossum, now included in family Didelphidae, was presented to Spain's King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella by the explorer Vicente Pinzon. Didelphidae is considered the basal marsupial family. The first metatherians were likely found in North America and spread to South America before the separation of Australia, Antarctica and South America in the tertiary period. The division between didelphids and other metatherians likely occurred between 62 and 69 million years ago. Fossil records for order Didelphimorphia suggest that these animals have historically been found in Europe and Africa in the Oligocene and Miocene, in Asia in the Oligocene, in North America from the Pleistocene until present and in South America from the Cretaceous until present. Due to their basal, ancestral relationship to other marsupials, the didelphid body plan is considered very primitive and generalized. Contemporary didelphids likely emerged from a small to medium sized scansorial animal, without limb specializations. (Astua, 2009; Feldhamer, et al., 2004; Gardner, 2008; Nilsson, et al., 2004; O'Connell, 2006; Retief, et al., 1995; Springer, et al., 1994)

  • Synapomorphies
    • paired spermatozoa
    • primitive ear structure
    • precocial development of forelimbs at birth
    • dental formula

Physical Description

Family Didelphidae is an ancestral group, not surprisingly; these animals maintain many morphological similarities to early mammals including a long rostrum, a well-developed sagittal crest and short limbs. Didelphids range in size from 10 g in genus Monodelphis to over 2 kg in genus Didelphis. Including their tails, the smallest members may be 170 mm long, whereas the largest members may be over 1,000 mm long. Sexual dimorphism is present in many didelphid species, with males larger than females. Their pelage varies between woolly or fine and often includes guard hairs or underfur. Their fur is typically darkly colored, but may vary to a pale gray or yellow-brown. Many species of didelphids also have a dark facial mask that encircles their eyes. All didelphids have the same dental formula: 5/4, 1/1, 3/3, 4/4, with a total of 50 teeth. These animals have conical upper incisors, polyprotodont lower incisors and large canines. In general, the larger members of the family have a pouch; smaller members may have simple lateral folds on their abdomen instead. In either case, these animals may have anywhere from 4 to 27 functional mammae. Their tails are often very long and prehensile with very little hair; however, some members have short, non-prehensile, furry tails. Some species are specialized with crassated tails that store fat for periods of torpor. These animals have 5 digits on each foot, the hallux and pollex is opposable in many species. The semi-aquatic water opossum is specialized with webbed hind feet. Many of these animals also have long sensitive vibrissae. (Astua, 2009; Feldhamer, et al., 2004; Gardner, 2008; Jones, et al., 2003; Nowak, 1999; O'Connell, 2006; Volchan, et al., 2004)

  • Sexual Dimorphism
  • male larger


Members of family Didelphidae are considered polygynous. Males from studied species compete for reproductive females. In laboratory tests, male didelphids often follow, chase and circle females, while producing clicking noises. Generally, didelphids show neither courtship displays nor pair bonds. (Fernandes, et al., 2010; O'Connell, 2006; Saunders and Hinds, 1997)

Members of family Didelphidae become sexually mature between 6 and 10 months of age and produce 1 to 4 polytocous litters per year. Didelphids are primarily seasonal breeders, although some species, such as gray short-tailed opossums, breed nearly year round. Their breeding season is largely dictated by food availability. In the seasonal tropics, breeding typically coincides with the dry season, whereas in less seasonal environments the breeding season may be longer. These animals have a very short gestation period that often lasts no more than 2 weeks, after which, several altricial young are born. Their tiny newborns are about 1 cm long and weigh about 0.13 g. At birth, many of their organs and systems have not fully formed; however, these animals have very precocial forelimbs with sharp deciduous claws that allow them to climb from the cloaca to their mother’s mammae. Although these animals have 4 to 27 mammae, many species produce more offspring than they can nurse and a large number of newborns perish. Larger species, such as members of the genera Didelphis, Chironectes, Philander and Lutreolina, typically have a pouch; smaller species have lateral abdominal folds located near their mammae. Once the newborns are attached, they nurse constantly for several more weeks, during this time they complete their development. Males of some species show partial semelparity, after breeding, these males have high mortality rates and a low body condition. (Astua, 2009; Feldhamer, et al., 2004; Gardner, 2008; Lee and Cockburn, 1987; Martins, et al., 2006; Nowak, 1999; O'Connell, 2006; Wilson, 2000)

Young didelphids are cared for solely by their mother, there are no reports of male parental investment. While attached to the mammae, young are kept warm by their mother’s body heat. After the attachment period, young remain associated with their mother for several more weeks and continue nursing. During this time, it is common for offspring to ride on their mother’s fur during nighttime excursions. Typically, young leave their mother’s care during the wet season. Litters born late in the season tend to be smaller and have higher mortality rates. Likewise, older females often have fewer offspring per litter. Regardless of age, females with only one offspring may not be able to produce milk due to the low level of stimulation. (Feldhamer, et al., 2004; Nowak, 1999; O'Connell, 2006; Wilson, 2000)


In general, didelphids have a fairly short lifespan. In the wild, these animals typically live 1 to 3 years; however, their infant mortality rate is also very high. In captivity, many didelphids survive up to 8 years. (O'Connell, 2006)


Members of family Didelphidae are nocturnal and are often crepuscular as well. Generally, these animals are solitary but they may congregate while feeding, although they do not usually interact. In laboratory tests, male didelphids were extremely aggressive with other male conspecifics and fought often. Males did not show a similar level of aggression toward female conspecifics. These animals have several modes of locomotion including terrestrial, scansorial, arboreal and semi-aquatic (water opossums). Many species utilize nests by either creating them, using the nests of other species or using tree hallows. Nesting substrates include dry leaves, roots and grasses. Some species enter torpor due to low food availability and extreme temperatures. (Astua, 2009; Gardner and Dagosto, 2008; Lemelin, 1999; Nowak, 1999; O'Connell, 2006; Pires, et al., 2010; Saunders and Hinds, 1997; Wilson, 2000)

Communication and Perception

Members of family Didelphidae are not often noisy. When they do produce sound, it typically varies between four distinct types, tonal chirps, growls, clicks/hisses or screams. These animals are sensitive to high frequency sounds, but their sensitivity to general noises may be low. Their hearing is somewhat limited compared to placental mammals and has to do with their primitive inner ear morphology. The hearing range of studied species typically was most acute at 8 to 64 kHz. Regardless, didelphids communicate vocally during breeding season and to maintain contact with their young. Young didelphids may produce bird-like screams and adult females may produce clicking and lip smacking sounds. Didelphids have fairly well-developed eyesight, as is evident from their ability to capture prey and walk on narrow vines. As compared to other groups, such as primates, their visual acuity is fairly poor, although some species are able to discriminate between prey items at a distance of about 60 cm. Similar to other nocturnal species, the light gathering ability of their eyes is extremely well developed. Although it is still somewhat debated, current research suggests that these animals have dichromatic vision. When they perceive danger, these animals may produce visual displays such as opening their mouth and curling their lips. Olfaction is an extremely important mode of perception among didelphids. These animals have scent glands, which are used during breeding season to attract mates. In these situations, males scent mark more frequently than females using their head, flank and chest. Sexually immature males do not show scent marking behaviors. Likewise, olfaction is an important means of communication between mothers and their offspring. After parturition, females often produce a musky secretion that stains their fur and the fur of their offspring. This may help maintain contact if they are separated. Likewise, didelphids use their vomeronasal organ in selecting their food. Didelphids with impaired vomeronasal organs show no preference when selecting food as opposed to non-altered animals, which can be rather selective. (Aitkin, 1998; Fadem and Cole, 1985; Frost and Masterton, 1994; Gutierrez, et al., 2011; Halpern, et al., 2005; Holmes, 1992; O'Connell, 2006; Oswaldo-Cruz, et al., 1979; Volchan, et al., 2004)

Food Habits

Overall, didelphids are opportunistic omnivores; these animals eat a broad range of invertebrates, vertebrates and plant material. There is variation in the group regarding the degree of insectivory, carnivory and frugivory, but almost all members consume at least a small amount of each of these food items, although their diet generally changes based on food availability. Species found in urban environments may feed on garbage produced by humans and food intended for domestic pets. Many members of family Didelphidae are immune to the snake venom of family Vipiridae and may actively hunt rattlesnakes. Likewise, although didelphids are impacted by the chemical release produced by harvestmen spiders, many opossums still consume them. (Almeida-Santos, et al., 2000; Caceres, et al., 2002; Castro-Arellano, et al., 2000; Feldhamer, et al., 2004; Machado, et al., 2005; McRuer and Jones, 2009; Nowak, 1999; Perales, et al., 1994; Pires, et al., 2010; Reid, 2009)


Didelphid opossums are prey items for many predators within their various habitats including felids, canids, birds of prey, rattlesnakes and coatis. Not surprisingly, young opossums are the most vulnerable to predation. These animals may run or climb a tree to avoid a predator, when cornered, didelphids may attempt to bite their attacker. Some species may even enter a catatonic state when they are exposed to extreme stress; colloquially known as ‘playing opossum’, this response is relatively rare. (Bianchi, et al., 2011; Campos, et al., 2007; Ferreira, et al., 2013; Gustavo, et al., 1990; Motta-Junior, et al., 2004; Parera, 2002; Pires, et al., 2010; Rotenberg, et al., 2012; Sant'anna and Abe, 2007; Shripat, 2011)

Ecosystem Roles

Many didelphids act as important seed dispersers due to their at least partially frugivorous diet. These animals are also used as hosts for a variety of internal and external parasites including fleas, ticks, chiggers and mites, as well as cestodes, nematodes and acanthocephalan worms. (Durden and Nixon, 1990; Jimenez, et al., 2011; Medellin, 1994)

Commensal/Parasitic Species

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Members of family Didelphidae may be used for human benefit in a variety of ways. Several species are hunted for sport or food and their meat has been used in the wild game trade. Likewise, the pelts of some species have been used for relatively low quality fur. In addition, several opossum species are used as study organisms in scientific laboratories. A few species, such as Virginia opossums and gray short-tailed opossums have been used in the pet trade. These pets are illegal in many areas of the United States but are reportedly trainable. Historically, opossum fat, meat and bones have been used to treat and prevent a variety of ailments such as stomach discomfort, inflammation, labor pains, asthma, headaches, toothaches, ear aches, sore throat, allergies, epilepsy, dermatitis, coughing and heart attacks. (Alonso-Castro, et al., 2011; Alves and Rosa, 2006; Alves and Rosa, 2007; Cuaron, et al., 2012; Feldhamer, et al., 2004; Jacobo-Salcedo, et al., 2011; Junior, et al., 2010; Keyte and Smith, 2008; McManus, 1974; McRuer and Jones, 2009; Nowak, 1999)

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Didelphid opossums may transmit parasites and human ailments such as Chagas disease and Leishmaniases. Opossums living near human settlements also have a tendency to knock over trash cans in an effort to feed on human refuse and may consume food left for domestic pets. Large didelphids often raid poultry farms, killing chickens. Several of the more frugivorous species may steal crops from orchards and pineapple plantations, however, the crop loss and damage from didelphids is generally considered minimal. These animals may also disrupt scientific research due to their propensity to kill animals captured in mist nets. (Adler, et al., 2012; Brito, et al., 2008; Cabello, 2006; Castro-Arellano, et al., 2000; Cuaron, et al., 2012; Deane, et al., 1984; McRuer and Jones, 2009; Monge-Meza and Linares-Orozco, 2010; Reid, 2009)

Conservation Status

Members of family Didelphidae are under a variety of conservation risk levels according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. At least 2 species are currently considered critically endangered, both Handley's slender mouse opossums and one-striped opossums, are endangered due to their small amount of viable habitat. At least 7 species are currently considered vulnerable including Karimis fat-tailed opossums, red three-striped opossums, Reigs opossums, junin slender opossums, Chacoan pygmy opossums, little woolly mouse opossums and dryland mouse opossums, the immediate threats to these species include habitat conversion to agriculture, logging and the encroachment of human settlements. At least 3 additional species are currently near threatened including wood sprite gracile mouse opossums, Handleys short-tailed opossums and Paraguayan fat-tailed mouse opossums. Likewise, there is one species that is recorded as newly extinct, red-bellied gracile mouse opossums have not been seen since 1962, their entire recorded habitat has been converted to agricultural land and used for human industry. The conservation status of several other species has yet to be evaluated. (Diaz and Barquez, 2008; Flores and Solari, 2011; Flores and Teta, 2011; Lew, et al., 2011a; Lew, et al., 2011b; Pacheco, et al., 2008; Perez-Hernandez, et al., 2011; Pires Costa and Patterson, 2008; Solari and Patterson, 2011; Teta and de la Sancha, 2008; Weksler and Bonvicino, 2008; Weksler, et al., 2008; de la Sancha and Teta, 2011)

  • IUCN Red List [Link]
    Not Evaluated


Leila Siciliano Martina (author), Animal Diversity Web Staff.



living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico.

World Map


living in the southern part of the New World. In other words, Central and South America.

World Map


uses sound to communicate


living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture.


young are born in a relatively underdeveloped state; they are unable to feed or care for themselves or locomote independently for a period of time after birth/hatching. In birds, naked and helpless after hatching.


Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing.

bilateral symmetry

having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.

causes or carries domestic animal disease

either directly causes, or indirectly transmits, a disease to a domestic animal


Found in coastal areas between 30 and 40 degrees latitude, in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Vegetation is dominated by stands of dense, spiny shrubs with tough (hard or waxy) evergreen leaves. May be maintained by periodic fire. In South America it includes the scrub ecotone between forest and paramo.


uses smells or other chemicals to communicate


active at dawn and dusk

desert or dunes

in deserts low (less than 30 cm per year) and unpredictable rainfall results in landscapes dominated by plants and animals adapted to aridity. Vegetation is typically sparse, though spectacular blooms may occur following rain. Deserts can be cold or warm and daily temperates typically fluctuate. In dune areas vegetation is also sparse and conditions are dry. This is because sand does not hold water well so little is available to plants. In dunes near seas and oceans this is compounded by the influence of salt in the air and soil. Salt limits the ability of plants to take up water through their roots.


a substance used for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease


animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.

female parental care

parental care is carried out by females


A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing.


forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality.


the state that some animals enter during winter in which normal physiological processes are significantly reduced, thus lowering the animal's energy requirements. The act or condition of passing winter in a torpid or resting state, typically involving the abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals.


offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).


having the capacity to move from one place to another.


This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation.

native range

the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic.


active during the night


an animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals


having more than one female as a mate at one time


rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal.

scent marks

communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them

scrub forest

scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons.

seasonal breeding

breeding is confined to a particular season


reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female


lives alone


living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns.


uses touch to communicate


that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle).


Living on the ground.


the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south.

tropical savanna and grassland

A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia.


A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest. See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.

temperate grassland

A terrestrial biome found in temperate latitudes (>23.5° N or S latitude). Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands.


living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity.


uses sight to communicate


reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female.


Adler, G., A. Carvajal, S. Davis-Foust, J. Dittel. 2012. Habitat associations of opossums and rodents in a lowland forest in French Guiana. Mammalian Biology, 77: 84-89.

Aitkin, L. 1998. Zoophysiology: Hearing- The Brain and Auditory Communication in Marsupials. Berlin: Springer.

Almeida-Santos, S., M. Antoniazzi, O. Sant'anna, C. Jared. 2000. Predation by the opossum Didelphis marsupialis on the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus. Current Herpetology, 19:1: 1-9.

Alonso-Castro, A., C. Carranza-Alvarez, J. Maldonado-Miranda, M. Jacobo-Salcedo, D. Quezada-Rivera, H. Lorenzo-Marquez, L. Figueroa-Zuniga, C. Fernandez-Garcia, N. Rios-Reyes, M. de Leon-Rubio, V. Rodrigues-Gallegoes, P. Medellin-Milan. 2011. Zootherapeutic practices in Aquismon, San Luis Potos, Mexico. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 138: 233-237.

Alves, R., I. Rosa. 2006. From cnidarians to mammals: The use of animals as remedies in fishing communities in northeast Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 107: 259-276.

Alves, R., I. Rosa. 2007. Zootherapeutic practices among fishing communities in north and northeast Brazil: A comparison. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 111: 82-103.

Astua, D. 2009. Evolution of scapula size and shape in didelphid marsupials (Didelphimorphia:Didelphidae). Evolution, 63:9: 2438-2456.

Bianchi, R., A. Rosa, A. Gatti, S. Mendes. 2011. Diet of margay, Leopardus wiedii, and jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi (Carnivora: Felidae) in an Atlantic rainforest, Brazil. Zoologia, 28:1: 127-132.

Brito, D., D. Astua Moraes, D. Lew, P. Soriano, L. Emmons, A. Cuaron, K. Helgren, R. Reid. 2008. "Didelphis marsupialis" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed May 30, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Cabello, D. 2006. Reproduction of Didelphis marsupialis (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) in the Venezuelan Andes. Acta Theriologica, 51:4: 427-433.

Caceres, N., I. Ghizoni-Jr, M. Graipel. 2002. Diet of two marsupials, Lutreolina crassicaudata and Micoureus demerarae, in a coastal Atlantic forest island of Brazil. Mammalia, 66:3: 331-340.

Campos, C., C. Esteves, K. Ferraz, P. Crawshaw Jr, L. Verdadae. 2007. Diet of free-ranging cats and dogs in suburban and rural environment, south-eastern Brazil. Journal of Zoology, 273: 14-20.

Carvalho, B., L. Oliveira, A. Nunes, M. Matteui. 2002. Karyotypes of nineteen marsupial species from Brazil. Journal of Mammalogy, 83:1: 58-70.

Castro-Arellano, I., H. Zarza, R. Medellin. 2000. Philander opossum. Mammalian Species, 638: 1-8.

Cuaron, A., L. Emmons, K. Helgen, F. Reid, D. Lew, B. Patterson, C. Delgado, S. Solari. 2012. "Didelphis virginiana" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed May 02, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Deane, M., H. Lenzi, A. Jansen. 1984. Trypanosoma cruzi: Vertebrate and invertebrate cycles in the same mammal host, the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 79:4: 513-515.

Diaz, M., R. Barquez. 2008. "Cryptonanus ignitus" (On-line). www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Durden, L., W. Nixon. 1990. Ectoparasitic and phoretic arthropods of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in central Tennessee. Journal of Parasitology, 76:4: 581-583.

Fadem, B., E. Cole. 1985. Scent-marking in the grey short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Animal Behaviour, 33: 730-738.

Feldhamer, G., L. Drickhamer, S. Vessey, J. Merritt. 2004. Chapter 10: Monotremes and marsupials. Pp. 168-187 in G Feldhamer, L Drickhamer, S Vessey, J Merritt, eds. Mammalogy: Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology, Vol. 2nd Ed. New York: McGraw Hill.

Fernandes, F., L. Cruz, E. Martins, S. do Reis. 2010. Growth and home range size of the gracile mouse opossum Gracilinanus microtarsus (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) in Brazilian cerrado. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 26: 185-192.

Ferreira, G., E. Nakano-Oliveira, G. Genero, A. Lacenda-Chaves. 2013. Diet of the coati Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in an area of woodland inserted in an urban environment in Brazil. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 86: 95-102.

Flores, D., S. Solari. 2011. "Monodelphis handleyi" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Flores, D., P. Teta. 2011. "Monodelphis unistriatus" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Frost, S., R. Masterton. 1994. Hearing in primitive mammals: Monodelphis domestica and Marmosa elegans. Hearing Research, 76: 67-72.

Gardner, A., M. Dagosto. 2008. Tribe Metachirini. Pp. 35-39 in A Gardner, ed. Mammals of South America: Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats, Vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gardner, A. 2008. American Marsupials. Pp. 1-2 in A Gardner, ed. Mammals of South America: Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats, Vol. 1. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Gustavo, A., B. da Fonseca, J. Robinson. 1990. Forest size and structure: Competitive and predatory effects on small mammal communities. Biological Conservation, 53: 265-294.

Gutierrez, E., B. Pegoraro, B. Magalhaes-Castro, V. Pessoa. 2011. Behavioural evidence of dichromacy in a species of South American marsupial. Animal Behaviour, 81: 1049-1054.

Halpern, M., Y. Daniels, I. Zuri. 2005. The role of the vomeronasal system in food preference of the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica. Nutrition and Metabolism, 2:6: 1-3.

Harmon, L., K. Bauman, M. McCloud, J. Parks, S. Howell, J. Losos. 2005. What free-ranging animals do at the zoo: A study of the behavior and habitat use of opossums (Didelphis virginiana) on the grounds of the St. Louis Zoo. Zoo Biology, 24: 197-213.

Holmes, D. 1992. Odors as cues for orientation to mothers by weanling Virginia opossums. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 18:12: 2251-2259.

Jacobo-Salcedo, M., A. Alonso-Castro, A. Zarate-Martinez. 2011. Folk medicinal use of fauna in Mapimi, Durago, Mexico. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 133: 902-906.

Jimenez, F., F. Catzeflis, S. Garnder. 2011. Structure of parasite component communities of Didelphis marsupialis: Insights from a comparative study. Journal of Parasitology, 97:5: 779-878.

Jones, M., M. Archer, C. Dickman. 2003. Predators with Pouches: The biology of carnivorous marsupials. Collingwood: Csiro Publishing.

Junior, P., D. Guimaraes, Y. le Perdu. 2010. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian amazon: A case study. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 58:3: 1079-1088.

Kanda, L. 2005. Winter energetics of Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana and implications for the species' northern distributional limit. Ecography, 28:6: 731-744.

Keyte, A., K. Smith. 2008. Opossums (Monodelphis domestica): A marsupial development model. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols, 10:3: 1-4.

Lee, A., A. Cockburn. 1987. Life histories of the carnivorous marsupials: Didelphidae. Pp. 105-110 in A Lee, A Cockburn, eds. Evolutionary Ecology of Marsupials, Vol. 1. Cambridge: The University of Cambridge.

Lemelin, P. 1999. Morphological correlates of substrate use in didelphid marsupials: Implications for primate origins. Journal of Zoology, 247:2: 165-175.

Lew, D., E. Gutierrez, J. Ventura, M. Lopez-Fuster, R. Perez-Hernandez. 2011. "Marmosa xerophila" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Lew, D., M. Lopez Fuster, J. Ventura, R. Perez-Hernandez, E. Gutierrez. 2011. "Monodelphis reigi" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Machado, G., P. Carrera, A. Pomini, A. Marsaioli. 2005. Chemical defense in harvestment (Arachnida, Opiliones): Do Benzoquinone secretions deter invertebrate and vertebrate predators. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 31:11: 2519-2539.

Martins, E., V. Bonato, C. da Silva, S. dos Reis. 2006. Partial semelparity in the Neotropical didelphid marsupial Gracilinanus microtarsus. Journal of Mammalogy, 87:5: 915-920.

McManus, J. 1974. Didelphis virginiana. Mammalian Species, 40: 1-6.

McRuer, D., K. Jones. 2009. Behavioral and nutritional aspects of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Veterinary Clinic of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, 12:2: 217-236.

Medellin, R. 1994. Seed dispersal of Cecropia obtusifolia by 2 species of opossums. Biotropica, 26:4: 400-407.

Monge-Meza, J., J. Linares-Orozco. 2010. Presence of four-eyed fox (Philander opossum) in pineapple crops (Ananas comusus). Agronomia Mesoamericana, 21:2: 343-347.

Motta-Junior, J., C. Rodrigues Alho, S. Silva Belentani. 2004. Food habits of the striped owl Asio clamator in southeast Brazil. Journal of Raptor Research, 38: 777-784.

Nilsson, M., U. Arnason, P. Spencer, A. Janke. 2004. Marsupial relationships and a time line for marsupial radiation in south Gondwana. Gene, 340:2: 189-196.

Nowak, R. 1999. Order Didelphimorphia. Pp. 17-35 in R Nowak, ed. Walker's Mammals of the World, Vol. 6th Ed. Baltimore: The John's Hopkins University Press.

O'Connell, M. 2006. American Opossum. Pp. 808-813 in D MacDonald, S Norris, eds. The Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 1. London: The Brown Reference Group.

Oswaldo-Cruz, E., J. Hokoc, A. Sousa. 1979. A schematic eye for the opossum. Vision Research, 19:3: 263-278.

Pacheco, V., S. Solari, B. Patterson. 2008. "Marmosops juninensis" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Parera, A. 2002. Los mamiferos de la Argentina y la region austral de Sud America. Buenos Aires: El Ateneo.

Pearson, O. 2008. Genus Lestodelphys Tate, 1934. Pp. 50-51 in A Gardner, ed. Mammals of South America: Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats, Vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Perales, J., H. Moussatche, S. Marangoni, B. Oliveira, G. Domont. 1994. Isolation and partial characterization of an anti-Bothropic complex from the serum of South American Didelphidae. Toxicon, 32:10: 1237-1249.

Perez-Hernandez, R., D. Lew, E. Gutierrez, J. Ventura. 2011. "Gracilinanus dryas" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Pires Costa, A., B. Patterson. 2008. "Thylamys karimii" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Pires, M., E. Martins, M. Silva, S. dos Reis. 2010. Gracilinanus microtarsus. Mammalian Species, 42:1: 33-40.

Reid, F. 2009. A field guide to the mammals of central and southeast Mexico. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Retief, J., C. Krajewski, M. Westerman, R. Winkfein, G. Dixon. 1995. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of marsupial protamine P1 genes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. Biological Sciences, 259: 7-14.

Rotenberg, J., J. Marlin, L. Pop, W. Garcia. 2012. First record of a harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) nest in Belize. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 124:2: 292-297.

Sant'anna, S., A. Abe. 2007. Diet of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus in southeastern Brazil (Serpentes, Viperidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 42:3: 169-174.

Saunders, N., L. Hinds. 1997. Marsupial Biology: Recent research, new perspectives. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.

Shripat, V. 2011. "The online guide to the animals of Trinidad and Tobago" (On-line). The University of the West Indies. Accessed May 21, 2013 at http://sta.uwi/fst/lifesciences/documents/Didelphis_marsupialis.pdf.

Solari, S., B. Patterson. 2011. "Marmosa phaeus" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Springer, M., M. Westerman, J. Kirsch. 1994. Relationships among orders and families of marsupials based on 12S ribosomal DNA sequences and the timing of the marsupial radiation. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 2:2: 85-115.

Teta, P., N. de la Sancha. 2008. "Chacodelphys formosa" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Volchan, E., C. Vargas, J. Guedes da Franca. 2004. Tooled for the task: Vision in the opossum. Bioscience, 54:3: 189-194.

Weksler, M., C. Bonvicino. 2008. "Monodelphis umbristriatus" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Weksler, M., B. Patterson, C. Bonvicino. 2008. "Marmosops handleyi" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.

Wilson, E. 2000. Chapter 23: Evolutionary trends within the mammals. Pp. 456-478 in E Wilson, ed. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Vol. 25th Anniversary Edition. Cambridge: The Bellknap Press of Harvard University Press.

de la Sancha, N., P. Teta. 2011. "Thylamys macrurus" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed July 08, 2013 at www.iucnredlist.org.